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Liteway 2Pcs LED Work Light – 4 Inch Flood LED Light Bar for Tractor Offroad 4WD Truck ATV UTV SUV Driving Lamp Daytime Running Light

At Inuksuk Safety we use these LED lights on our Commercial Pressure Washing Trailer. We have them hooked to our solar array as well as hooked to the Lights when attached to the truck. It lights the area pretty good! 3 Lights hooked to the solar array draws 1.8 Amps as read from the solar charge controller.  Take a look at the photos below to see the results: We ordered them through (amazon affiliate)

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Mr. Heater Fuel Filter for Portable Buddy and Big Buddy Heaters #F273699

When using your Mr.Buddy Big Buddy Heater with 20 lb tanks you can expect to purchase a few items to get the system working instead of the regular 1lb tank. Inuksuk Safety uses the Big Buddy Heater in combination with 2 – 20 lb tanks of propane to heat our mobile pressure washing trailer. Below is a link to to purchase the filters (Amazon Affiliate). The current Price is $21.08 each with Amazon Prime Free Shipping. They screw in right at the point where you would normally screw in the 1 lb bottles of propane.

You would be changing these filters if they get clogged or are having issues with the pilot light not staying lite. Inuksuk Safety has used these filters on the big buddy to heat the trailer during the winter months. We run this heater 7 days a week, 24 hours a day during the winter to ensure that the trailer stays above freezing. We have noticed that the heater on low will run about 2 propane tanks (filled 85% in winter) for about 7 days. Below is a link for the Big Buddy on The filters have currently lasted about 3 months currently with more to come. The big buddy does produce a small amount of moisture in an enclosed space. We open the top vent on the trailer and have a small fan running to allow for some air movement which reduces the amount of moisture that is built up on the walls and ceiling.

If you don’t have time for maintenance on your equipment, Your equipment will MAKE time for maintenance.

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A Brief History of Labour Day and Workers’ Safety & Rights in Canada

Labour Day in Canada is recognized every first Monday of September since the 1880s. In the second half of the 19 century, Canada was changing rapidly with the increase of immigration, cities growing in numbers, and the industrial revolution drastically altering Canada’s economy and workforce.1


During this time work environments had deplorable conditions, low wages, and long workdays with a 6 day work week.  Trade unions were still illegal under British law and machines began to replace and automate many worker processes, while employees found they can no longer offer special skills to offer employers; employee striking was also viewed as criminality to disrupt trade.  Around the same time, the Toronto Printers Union has been lobbying for a shorter workweek, which was inspired by workers in Ontario, Hamilton that that started a moment for a nine-hour work week.  The members of the Toronto Printer Union were imprisoned for striking to campaign for a nine-hour working day.2  Despite the imprisonment and illegal unions, the Toronto Trade Assembly encouraged workers to form trade unions and over time public support grew and authorities could no longer deny the important role that unions played for worker rights and for safety.


In 1883, Canada’s first Prime Minister Sir John Macdonald passed a bill to repeal all Canadian laws against trade unions.3  Labour Day in Canada was originally celebrated in the spring, but it was moved to the fall after 1894 after Prime Minister Sir John Thompson declared Labour Day a national holiday and celebrates workers’ rights during parades and picnics organized by trade unions.4




Read more of the History of Workplace Safety on our previous blog post.


Labor Day in the United States is held on the same day, and Canadian trade unions are proud that this holiday was inspired to celebrate and improve workers’ rights and safety. A lot has happened since then and in honor of the 125th anniversary of Labour Day in Canada here are some of the unforgettable recent events in the history of safety in Canada:



In 1964 “Safety” is defined as “freedom from injury to the body or freedom from damage to health.”  The Industrial Safety Act is introduced and replaces Factory, Shop and Office Building Act where employers are now required to take such precautions to ensure worker safety.  In 1971 the Act was revisited and responsibility for safety is given to the supervisor and the worker.6


Existing occupational health and safety legislation, the Construction Safety Act, the Mining Act, the Employees Health and Safety Act, and the Industrial Safety Act are all combined into one statute to be developed as the Occupational Health and Safety Act.7  The act provides for health and safety committees, refusal to work and the regulation of toxic substances. 8


On January 1st, 1998 the Workers’ Compensation Act renamed to Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) with new responsibility for occupational injury and illness prevention and the promotion of occupational health and safety. 9



The bill became law on March 31st, 2004 that amended the Canadian Criminal Code that imposes criminal liability for occupational health and safety violations resulting in injury or death. The bill allows for criminal prosecution of organizations, including corporations, their representatives and those who have authority to direct the work of others. 10



Many provinces in Canada have safety regulations for Working Alone or in Isolation.  Failure to comply with Work Alone Regulations could result in increased Workers’ Compensation Board premiums, fines, legal action or even criminal charges for either an organization or an individual liable.  To learn more about work alone regulations in Canada visit our Regulations page.


Ontario passes Bill 168 on April 2009 a legislation amending the Occupational Health and Safety Act to include provisions for the prevention of workplace violence and harassment. Under Bill 168, employers must devise workplace violence and harassment policies, develop programs to implement such policies, and engage in assessments to measure the risk of workplace violence.11



The Canadian Standards Association relapses national standard on managing work in confined spaces.  CSA Z1006 is a voluntary standard that defines best practices for confined space work and was developed with input from industry sectors such as energy and mining. 12






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Workplace Hazards for Hospitality & Hotel Workers

Most duties of housekeepers in the hospitality industry are intense and grueling.   Hotels today are competitive and offer more amenities to their guest and as a result, in an increase of workload and unseen hazards that can lead to an increase of serious workplace injury. Data from The Bureau of Labor Statistics from 2017 shows that hotel and motel workers had a nonfatal injury and illness incidence rate of 4.3 while total recordable cases of all industries including private, state, and local government are 3.1.   Safety agencies are reporting a significant increase in occupational injuries and diseases among hospitality employees, safety advocated are proposing proper training and safety procedures that can teach housekeeping staff how to prevent muscle drain to the body, and provide proper preventative measures and procedures to prevent violence in the workplace.




Hotel housekeeping staff is a very physically demanding job that includes many, varied tasks including, vacuuming, dusting, changing linens, and making beds.  Housekeeping staff is subject to turning over mattresses that can sometimes weigh more than 100 pounds.  While daily cleaning and scrubbing of bathrooms can expose health risks with chemicals used in cleaning products.  As a result, housekeeping hotel employment could lead to any of the following injuries and hazards:

  • Slips and falls: Scrubbing floors of bathtubs, showers in bathroom floors create ideal conditions for slip-and-fall accidents.
  • Respiratory: Exposure to chemical cleaning agents that can cause respiratory long-term problems
  • Infectious diseases: Waste disposal can expose hotel housekeeping staff to pathogens, needs, broken glass, and other body waste.
  • Stress: excessive workload and exposure to other hazards can cause occupational stress
  • Muscle Injuries: Repetitive movements of vacuuming, scrubbing, dusting, etc. of hotel rooms requires housekeeping staff to move their body in ways that can strain and even tear muscles and tendons
  • Harassment and violence: An increasing amount of workplace harassments and violence has been reported in hotels across Canada and the United States.  Violence and harassment can be defined as any act in which a person is abused, threatened, intimidated or assaulted in his or her employment.




  • Safety authorities suggest hotel cleaners take the following precautions for their workers:
  • Muscle Injuries –to prevent unnecessary muscle tension, workers are encouraged to ask for help from co-workers if they need to lift heavy mattress to avoid and injuries while changing linens and making beds or moving heavy furniture.  Staff is encouraged to switch arms to avoid overexertion of muscles and tendons of one arm
  • Take Regular Breaks – Hotel shifts can be long and exhausting; employees are encouraged to stretch and take regular breaks.
  • Preventative technology: Hotel housekeeping workers are considered lone workers, and employers are responsible for the health and safety of workers, including procedures or a system in place to ensure workers are safe when working alone while cleaning rooms.



In some states the United States, safety bills have been proposed to help protect hotel housekeeping and room service workers against assaults and harassment.   The state of New Jersey was the first in the country that requires hotel employees to provide a panic button device to all hotel employees who are assigned to work in a guest room without co-workers present according to Senate, No. 2986.  When the panic button device is activated, a staff member, manager, or security officer must response immediately to the workers’ location.  This law is scheduled to go into effect in January 2020, and the law applies to all hotels in the state of New Jersey with more that has more than 100 guest rooms.


Recently in Victoria, BC, a hotel worker was assaulted, tied up, and robbed in the early hours of the morning.  This disturbing event is an example of the risks of working alone during the late and early hours of the morning.  In British Columbia, Canada employers are required to develop a working alone policy and procedure, including a working alone monitoring device to check the well-being of workers at predetermined intervals. An extra feature such a panic button device can trigger an alarm and expedite help when it is needed.




Does your workplace have any people who may work alone or in isolation outside of visual or auditory contact from other workers? These “lone workers” have a unique set of risks and their workplace hazard assessment should be treated differently. If your workplace does have lone workers, call 1-888-WRK-ALNE or contact us by email for a specialized consultation regarding the safety of your lone workers. The SafetyLine lone worker app is used while working alone or in isolation and allows you to check-in to update your workers status, record detailed messages, and report location with GPS. Workers check into the app regularly to report that they’re safe. If the worker misses a check-in or indicates an Emergency, SafetyLine begins to call for help. During emergencies, designated monitors receive automated phone calls and emails from SafetyLine, and are provided with online tools for emergency response. If you think your workplace may have people working alone, but are not sure about the exact working alone structure, check out this article on the definitions of lone workers.

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6 Ways to Prevent Electrical Accidents When Working Alone

Does your job entail you to work with electrical equipment? Then you would understand the importance of practicing electrical safety. When you are working alone, you must be extra careful so that you don’t find yourself in an electrical emergency. Here are 6 things to follow for electrical safety if you are working alone.


Grounding an electrical instrument creates a low-resistance path that connects to the earth. This helps in preventing the build-up of voltages that may cause an electrical accident.

  1. Make sure that all equipment is grounded so that you are not at risk of getting an electrical shock. Proper grounding eliminates unwanted voltage and reduces the risk of electrocution.
  2. You can use guarding as a secondary protective measure to further reduce the risk of electrical hazards.



Guarding electrical equipment means that you locate or enclose them so that people do not accidentally come in direct contact with them.

  1. It is important to guard all the exposed electrical wires or components. Use electrical connectors wherever necessary. They join electrical terminators and create an electrical circuit.
  2. Disconnect machines before you service or repair them.
  3. Use insulators such as mica, glass, plastic or rubber over metals and conductors to reduce the flow of current.



Electrical equipment will have cords and wires. Make sure you practice cord safety in the workplace.

  1. Do not plug two extension cords together. Try to minimize the use of extensive cords as much as possible.
  2. Never nail the extensive cords into place. Use electrical tape for the same. Nails will damage the cords, which may lead to shocks and electrical fires.
  3. Do not cover power and extension cords with rugs and mats. This may create tripping hazards or cause issues with the wires.
  4. Do not pull the cords or yank them. Carefully, unplug them from the outlet by gripping the plug.
  5. Do not use equipment with broken cords or plugin anything that has a missing prong.
  6. Inspect all the electrical cords regularly. If you see any signs of cord damage, stop using the equipment immediately and call a professional.



Water greatly increases the risk of electrocution. The risk will be greater if the equipment’s insulation is damaged.

  1. Do not keep or use electrical equipment near wet surfaces or in wet locations.
  2. Never operate electrical equipment with wet hands or when the equipment is wet.
  3. Bring in a qualified electrician to inspect electrical equipment if it got wet. Do not energize it before getting it checked.



Use circuit protection devices as they will limit or stop the current flow automatically in the event of a ground fault, short circuit or overload in the wiring systems. Some circuit protection devices include circuit breakers, fuses, arc-fault circuit interrupters and ground-fault circuit interrupters.

  1. Make sure you do not plug multi-outlets bars to other multi-outlet bars.
  2. Do not overload the sockets. If there are multiple connections, use a power board. Use just one power board per wall outlet.
  3. Notice if the wires are getting heated. There is a high risk of electrical fires when the wires become overheated. Ensure that the wires are suitable for their electrical load.

Do not ignore electrical hazards as they can lead to serious bodily injuries. It is of utmost importance that you take proper precautions when you deal with electrical equipment. Conduct a safety assessment test of the workplace to identify different hazards. Then, create a plan on how to address the hazards so that it does not lead to any serious accident.



When it comes to implementing a check-in-based safety system for your workers, you’ll need the support of everyone in the workplace. Keeping workers safe should be everyone’s business, and a coordinated effort will ensure that if someone working alone needs help, they’ll be able to receive it. If you or someone in your workplace works alone all or some of the time and you don’t have lone worker safety measures in place, start the conversation by asking yourself and others what needs to be done to make sure that all remote workers can come home safe.  SaaS (Software-as-a-Solution) models are becoming best practices for lone worker safety monitoring, and are the ideal successor to more traditional solutions.  SaaS also eliminates high upfront capital costs and costs associated with hosting, upgrading or maintenance.  Additionally, an effective solution should yield a high return on investment.

Keys to a modern lone worker system include:

  1. Scalability to fit fluctuating or rotating staff.
  2. The ability to work in multiple environments and situations.
  3. Future-proof technology that remains relevant
  4. If you’d like to find out more about how SafetyLine can get you help when you need it the most, call 1-888-WRK-ALNE or contact us HERE.


About the Guest Author:

Jeson Pitt works with the marketing department of D & F Liquidators in Hayward, CA and regularly writes to share his knowledge while enlightening people about electrical products and solving their electrical dilemmas. He’s got the industry insights that you can count on along with years of experience in the field. Jeson lives in Hayward, CA and loves to explore different cuisines that the food trucks in the Bay area have to offer.

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Good Video from Imperial Oil from Mining

Being experienced with mining operations in the oilsands for almost 10 years, This video hit close to home. I have seen the devastation that an incident like this creates. It does not just affect the immediate crew that it happens on. This makes ripples through an entire site and across other sites when an incident occurs. Please watch the video and seriously, Look Twice to Live. I am appreciative that Kearl is using  their resources to keep their employees and contractors aware in the workplace. There is no doubt that the Kearl Craft Safety Committee had a hand in this video, Kudos to them as well.

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Alberta- Ticks

Deer ticks, shown here through glass in a 2017 file photo, are collected by the Alberta government and tested for Lyme Disease. (Ben Garver/The Berkshire Eagle via The Associated Press)

Edmonton, AB—As Albertan’s head outdoors with their pets to enjoy the warmer weather, the Alberta
Veterinary Medical Association (ABVMA) is reminding the public that it’s tick season (April-October) and
that there’s potential for serious health risks if a bite goes unnoticed or untreated. Tick bites themselves
cause little harm. The danger lies in a tick’s ability to transmit disease, the most common of which is
Lyme disease.
“There have been approximately 100 human cases of Lyme disease reported by Albertan’s since the early
‘90’s but all originated outside of the province,” says Dr. Darrell Dalton, Registrar of the ABVMA.
“Nevertheless, given the human and animal health risks, there’s a surveillance program in place to
monitor the spread of the disease, and successful surveillance requires a vigilant public to check for ticks
and signs of infection.”
The first symptom of Lyme disease in dogs is typically a large, circular red rash around the bite area.
Infections of the skin, joints, muscles, heart and nervous system can follow unless treated. Not all
animals or people who have been bitten by a tick will contract Lyme disease. It is thought to take 36-48
hours before the Lyme disease bacterium can be transmitted, so it’s important to remove a tick as
quickly as possible.
Always check your pets for ticks after walks or when bringing them in from outside. Ticks are often too
small to see when they first get on your pet, prior to being engorged with blood, so inspect carefully. A
comb can be used to help spot ticks that may have attached to your pet. The sooner these ticks are
discovered, the less chance they have of transmitting harmful bacteria.
If you discover a tick that has bitten your pet, follow these instructions from Alberta Health to remove it
1. Using tweezers, gently grasp its head and mouth parts as close to the skin as possible.
2. Without squeezing the tick, slowly pull the tick straight up off the skin — do not jerk or twist it.
3. Do not apply matches, cigarettes or petroleum jelly to the tick.
4. Once the tick has been removed, clean the bite area with soap and water and disinfect the area
with an antiseptic. Wash hands with soap and water.
5. Save the tick in a clean, empty container. Do not add any ventilation holes to the container that
is being used to put the tick(s) in. You can put more than one tick in the container if they are
found on the same person or animal in the same general area in the environment.
6. Add a small piece of tissue or cotton ball, lightly moistened with water, into the container to
prevent the tick(s) from drying out.
7. Submit the tick for testing as soon as possible.
Tick surveillance and submission is crucial to tracking the spread of tick-borne diseases, and it allows the
government to inform us of outbreaks and high-risk areas.

Submit-a-tick program:


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Causes of the Ocean Ranger Disaster Brief


37 years ago on February 15 marks the date the Ocean Ranger capsized and sank off the coast of Newfoundland. There were 84 people on-board that night, but there were no survivors.

We MUST not forget incidents like this one and the lessons learned from it. Let’s take a moment to remember the past to ensure we don’t repeat similar mistakes in the work we do today.

Causes of the Ocean Ranger Disaster

Automatic emergency systems failed (ballast control system)

Workers did not understand how to use the manual control systems (valves)

Emergency response equipment was inadequate or failed (life boats)

Emergency rescue activities were ineffective

Lessons for us to remember and apply to our work today

  • Have we tested our emergency control systems?
  • Are all shut downs, alarms and automatic systems working and effective?
  • Have we practiced how to manually shut down processes?
  • Do we have the competency to manually control critical systems in the event of a control failure?
  • When was the last time we tested our emergency equipment? (air packs, fire water systems, eye wash stations)
  • When was your last emergency exercise?
  • Have all the improvements from the exercise implemented and tested?
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Housekeeping brief

The area within and surrounding the work area can be very hazardous to workers if debris is allowed to build up.

•Use a waste bin to prevent buildup of garbage.

•Ensure there are no protruding nails on loose or fixed materials.

•Floors, platforms, stairs and walkways must be kept in good repair. Keep them free of slipping and tripping hazards.

•Do not allow waste materials and snow to accumulate in working areas. Maintain ongoing waste disposal throughout the day.

•Place, stack, or store materials and equipment so they will not cause an incident

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Action Firearms Safety Training Inc.

Visit their website to book your P.A.L or R.P.A.L. in the Edmonton area! (Links Below)

Certified Firearms Instructors with many years of experience who have trained and examined thousands of students for the Canadian Firearms Safety Courses are ready to train you to achieve your objectives.  The goal of our program is to ensure the safe and responsible, as well as the enjoyable use of firearms.



The test consists of two parts; a written exam of 50 questions –approximately half are true and false and the remainder multiple choice.  The written exam is followed by a practical exam in which the individual is required to demonstrate practical knowledge of the five different actions (bolt, lever, semi-auto, pump and hinge).

During the practical exam you will be asked to demonstrate safe handling with three of the five actions. Marks will be deducted if ACTS and PROVE are not demonstrated.  Two points will also be deducted if the firearm is pointed in an unsafe direction, if your finger is unnecessarily on the trigger or in the trigger guard, or if you attempt to load the wrong ammunition into the firearm, or you do not complete PROVE.

An automatic fail occurs if you point the firearm at another human being, including yourself.  Unless when doing a visual bore inspection the action must be open.   

You must achieve a minimum of 80% on each exam to successfully apply for your Non Restricted Possession Acquisition License (PAL).

If a student fails a test, a minimum of 1 day must pass before the re-take.  If the student fails the re-take or more than 7 days have passed, the student must re-take the entire course.


Click Here to register (External Link)



Changes as of July 1, 2016:
An individual 18 or older may take the Canadian Restricted Firearms Safety Course, which has been mandated by the Federal Government to be a four hour course if taken within 7 days of taking the Canadian Firearms Safety Course, and a minimun of 6 hours if taken after 7 days.

A minor may take the Canadian Restricted Firearms Safety Course for educational purposes only.  They may take the CRFSC test for educational purpose only, it will not be sent in to the RCMP.

The test consists of two parts; a written exam of 50 questions – approximately half are true and false and the remainder multiple choice.  The written exam is followed by a practical exam in which the individual is required to demonstrate practical knowledge of the three different actions (semi-auto, double action and single action). You must achieve a minimum of 80% on each exam to successfully apply for your Restricted Possession Acquisition License (PAL).

You must  have your non restricted course or PAL before taking the restricted course.

Click Here to register (External Link)

Aiming for Safety.jpg


Inusksuk Safety has no affiliation with Action Firearms Safety Training Inc. The instructor is just a good instructor!

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6 Tips for Avoiding Slips, Trips, and Falls in the Workplace


When people think about dangers in the workplace, they often underestimate the impact of slips, trips, and falls. Not only are these accidents a major cause of injuries leading to missed work, but they can also be deadly. According to OSHA, slips trips and falls are second only to motor vehicles as a cause of fatalities, resulting in 15% of all accidental deaths.

Read below for 6 tips that will help you avoid slips, trips, and falls in your workplace.

1. Wear proper footwear

Be sure to use the right shoes for your working environment. Many varieties of slip resistant shoes are available, and an easy way to make shoes less slippery is by scuffing the soles before using them. This can be done by rubbing the soles on concrete or by using a knife to score them.

2. Don’t work in the dark

Make sure adequate lighting is available when you are working. Proper lighting will help you to avoid tripping on objects and other slipping hazards.

3. Use the right tool for the job

If you need to grab something out of reach, take the time to find a proper step stool or ladder. Many chairs are not designed to withstand the weight of someone standing directly on them, and they could break. Standing on folding chairs can cause them to collapse, and swivel office chair can slide out from underneath you.

4. Clean spills before they become slipping hazards

Keep work spaces clean to avoid slipping and tripping hazards. Pick up any fallen objects from the floor, and quickly wipe up spills to avoid slips.

5. Clear paths and walkways when moving large objects

When you need to move a large object, clear a path beforehand. Shuffling around other object while carrying a load can result in a fall due to decreased mobility and visibility.

6. Be vocal, and let people know when you’re moving

People in a shared workspace can be a tripping hazard to each other, so it’s important to let others know when you’re moving behind them. When opening doors into spaces, it’s a good practice to give warning.

Be sure to keep these safety tips in mind the next time you’re moving around your work space. Most importantly, make sure everyone else in your workplace is also aware of these practices and potential hazards.

The more people that know how to avoid slips, trips, and falls in a workplace, the safer that workplace will be.

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Physical Hazards

Of all the hazards in your workplace, Physical Hazards might the least obvious. Despite their name, Physical Hazards aren’t always something that you can see or touch. In this installment of our “Workplace Hazards” series, we’ll take a look at how you can identify and prepare for Physical Hazards.


Anything in the environment that can cause a body harm can fall under the category of Physical Hazards. Environmental dangers include:

  • Radiation: including ionizing, non-ionizing (EMF’s, microwaves, radio waves, etc.)
  • High exposure to sunlight / ultraviolet rays
  • Temperature extremes – hot and cold
  • Constant loud noise

To know if something is a Physical Hazard or not, just think about if it could cause physical harm to an employee. This could include common workplace objects like flammable items, or objects that may violently react to other environmental factors.


  • What kinds of environmental exposure do my employees face?
  • Do my employees work around potentially reactive or explosive chemicals or objects?
  • What are the long-term effects of working in this environment?
  • How long are my employees being exposed to sunlight and other environmental factors?
  • Do my employees have equipment that protects their hearing if necessary?
  • What protections are in place for potential extremes in temperature?
  • Could the equipment that my employees work with pose a risk to their long-term health?



Once you’ve identified physical hazards in your workplace, it’s important to reduce the risk posed to your employees. Whenever it’s not possible to completely eliminate a Physical Hazard from the workplace, you should introduce controls to reduce the risks involved.



Engineering controls reduce risk by reducing or eliminating risk through physical means. Examples of engineering controls for Physical Hazards include:

  • Providing safety equipment to employees that reduces their exposure to the Physical Hazard
  • Reduce noises and vibrations present in the workplace
  • Place barriers between employees and Physical Hazards such as radiation or microwaves
  • Provide proper ventilation and air conditioning for employees
  • Insulate any surfaces that could be prone to extremes in temperature

Administrative controls reduce risk by changing work processes and activities to make them more safe. Some examples of administrative controls for Physical Hazards are:

  • Handling smaller quantities of dangerous and reactive chemicals
  • Spending less time in areas of exposure
  • Working away from noise when possible
  • Provide employees with rest breaks away from Physical Hazards
  • Train employees to recognize and avoid Physical Hazards


Working alone can take your employees away from help that would otherwise be available. Lone workers are also disadvantaged when it comes to recognizing and responding to the Physical Hazards in their environment. In these situations, a check-in based monitoring system like SafetyLine provides security to your employees by calling for help even when they’re not able to.

When you’re assessing the Hazards in a workplace, remember to keep in mind the Physical Hazards that you can’t see. Hazards that aren’t obvious can pose a danger to even the most experienced employee, so it’s important to plan ahead and take precautions.


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When summertime rolls around, it’s easy to forget that even the clearest weather and sunshine can create hazards when working outdoors. If you find yourself working alone outside, you’ll need to take extra precautions as any potential problems are made worse when you’re away from help. In this list we’ll be looking at some of the most common risks of working outdoors in the summer, and some of the ways that you can help protect yourself.


Risks from sun and heat include sun stroke, dehydration, and sun burns. To avoid burning, apply sunscreen at least 30 minutes before exposure, and reapply throughout the day to maintain your protection. When heat poses a danger to you, make sure that you stay hydrated, and take breaks in the shade whenever possible.


During the summer, air quality can be decreased by environmental factors like allergens, dust, and debris. It’s especially important to consider air quality if you already suffer from a respiratory condition such as asthma. To avoid poor air quality in the summer, try to plan any trips outdoors for the coolest, driest times of the day, typically the morning or evening.


Just like the winter, summer has its own extreme weather conditions, including lightning strikes and tornadoes. If you’re outdoors and you hear thunder, take shelter indoors or inside a car if possible. Lightning is more likely to strike tall objects, so when a structure isn’t available it’s recommended to take shelter in low, dry areas. To avoid lightning storms, keep an eye on the clouds and always check weather forecasts before you leave.


For some people, severe allergic reactions can occur from insect bites, so having an EpiPen available when working outdoors is a good idea. To help you avoid mosquito and insect bites that can cause skin irritation and possibly disease, bring mosquito and insect repellents. Some repellents can cause their own irritations, so make sure to always follow the label directions before applying.


If you might encounter poison ivy and other irritating plants like poison oak, the best preventative measure is to learn to identify these plants and avoid them. If avoiding areas with these plants isn’t possible, closed-toe shoes, long sleeves, pants, and gloves can all protect your skin from these plant’s oils. If your clothing does come into contact with these plants, wash the clothing thoroughly to avoid second-hand reactions.

Working outdoors at any time presents new challenges and hazards, so take the time to consider the environment around you this summer. Working alone increases the danger from any environmental risk factor, so be sure that if you’re working alone this summer, you’re following good safety practices.

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What is a first-aider?

A first-aider is someone who has undertaken training appropriate to the circumstances. They must hold a valid certificate of competence in either:

  • first aid at work
  • emergency first aid at work
  • any other level of training or qualification that is appropriate to the circumstances

Employers can use the findings of their first-aid needs assessment to decide the appropriate level to which first-aiders should be trained.

  • Emergency first aid at work (EFAW) training enables a first-aider to give emergency first aid to someone who is injured or becomes ill while at work.
  • First aid at work training includes the EFAW syllabus and also equips the first-aider to apply first aid to a range of specific injuries and illness.

To help keep their basic skills up to date, it is strongly recommended that first-aiders undertake annual refresher training.

Certificates for the purposes of first aid at work last for three years. Before their certificates expire, first-aiders will need to undertake a requalification course as appropriate, to obtain another three-year certificate. Once certificates have expired the first aider is no longer considered to be competent to act as a workplace first aider.

How many first-aiders does an employer need?

In Alberta the occupational health and safety code determines how many first aiders and medical supplies are required. Consult your local OHS for information as they may be different in each.


Can legal action be taken against first-aiders in Canada?

Good Samaritan laws offer legal protection to people who give reasonable assistance to those who are, or who they believe to be, injured, ill, in peril, or otherwise incapacitated.[1] The protection is intended to reduce bystanders’ hesitation to assist, for fear of being sued or prosecuted for unintentional injury or wrongful death.

In Canada, good Samaritan acts fall under provincial jurisdiction. Each province has its own act, such as Ontario[6] and British Columbia’s[7] respective Good Samaritan Acts, Alberta’s Emergency Medical Aid Act,[8] and Nova Scotia’s Volunteer Services Act[9] Only in Quebec, a civil law jurisdiction, does a person have a general duty to respond, as detailed in the Quebec Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms.[10][11]

An example of a typical Canadian law is provided here, from Ontario’s Good Samaritan Act, 2001, section 2:

Protection from liability

2. (1) Despite the rules of common law, a person described in subsection (2) who voluntarily and without reasonable expectation of compensation or reward provides the services described in that subsection is not liable for damages that result from the person’s negligence in acting or failing to act while providing the services, unless it is established that the damages were caused by the gross negligence of the person. 2001, c. 2, s. 2 (1).[12]

Yukon and Nunavut do not have good Samaritan laws.

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Farmwise: Your essential guide to health and safety in agriculture

This book provides guidance that is relevant to everyone working on farms: employers, employees and the self-employed. It will help you achieve good standards of health and safety, and reduce injuries and ill health by identifying causes, eliminating hazards and controlling risks.

It covers the management of health and safety – principally for those responsible for running the farming or horticultural business – as well as outlining the specific risks of working in your industry and giving you easy-to-follow, practical advice to keep you safe and healthy at work.

Download it FREE here: Farmwise: Your essential guide to health and safety in agriculture

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Overturning tractors and other self-propelled vehicles

What you should know

All vehicles can overturn.  Accidents on slopes are not confined to hilly or mountainous regions.  They happen just as easily on or near banks, ditches, drains, ramps, uneven or flat ground.  Vehicles can also overturn on artificial slopes such as ramps, or when performing tasks such as rolling silage,

When working on slopes the main risks are:

  • Loss of control
    This occurs when wheels lose traction rending the brakes and steering ineffective.  It it easier to lose control of a vehicle on a slope because of the effect of gravity and forward momentum.
  • Runaways
    Loss of control can lead to a runaway where the vehicle starts to move down the slope and the driver is unable to bring it back under control
  • Jack-knifing
    This happens when a trailer or trailed appliance pushes into the tractor and slews the tractor round.  Poor ground conditions, heavy loading and poor wheel grip increase the risk
  • Overturns
    A vehicle may overturn sideways eg when attempting to traverse across a slope diagonally, or trying to turn down a slope as a consequence of a runaway and jack knife.  Machines can also overturn forwards or backwards depending on the situation.

What you need to do

1.  Plan the job.

Before working on slopes you should assess the risks.  Factors to consider include:

  • Gradient
    Different vehicles have different capabilities.  Gradients on a slope can vary with some parts steeper than others.
  • surface
    Different surfaces can affect how well a vehicle can deal with a slope eg grass, earth, loose stones
  • Ground conditions
    A slope that is safe during dry conditions may become unsafe if wet, waterlogged, frozen or thawing.  Uneven ground with ruts, pot holes and deep tracks can affect stability
  • Weather
    Wet and windy weather may increase the risks
  • Obstacles
    Tree stumps and rocks may be struck, particularly when hidden by vegetation, and cause sideways overturns if struck on the uphill side
  • Task
    The proposed task will also affect the risk.  When using rear mounted spreaders the load will decrease during spreading and this will reduce rear wheel grip. Tractors with trailed rollers, four-wheel trailers etc will have extra thrust imposed with no additional weight – they may slide away out of control.

2.  Select a suitable vehicle fitted with a roll over protective structure (ROPS)

A roll bar or safety cab is designed to provide protection for the operator if the vehicle overturns.  Where roll over protection is fitted, you should also have a lap belt or seat restraint fitted if a machine will be used in situations where there is a risk of overturning.

  • check that the roll bar or safety cab is in good condition and correctly fitted. Corrosion and incorrect mounting bolts can cause them  to fail in an overturn;
  • never remove windows or doors from a safety cab;
  • fit a lap belt where one has not  been installed as original equipment;

To reduce the risk of an overturn:

  • make sure that tractors and machines are properly equipped and maintained, especially brakes, steering and tyres. Consider wide wheel settings for work on slopes;
  • select a machine suitable for the job.  Tractors with four wheel drive are likely to be safer to use on slopes compared to those with two wheel drive.

You may only use a tractor or self-propelled machine without ROPS in low-risk situations such as buildings and orchards or where specific exemptions exist.

3.  Work safely

Always use safe systems of work when working on slopes.  For example:

  • you should turn uphill when working across a slope, and descend straight down the gentlest gradient;
  • you cannot always safely descend a slope that you safely drove up;
  • select an appropriate gear and speed
  • take into account working with trailers, attachments and loads will change the centre of gravity

To reduce the risk of injury from an overturn:

  • stay in the cab and do not try to jump clear, as most deaths and serious injuries involve those who are crushed when they jump or are thrown out of a cab during overturning;
  • don’t carry loose items such as draw bar pins or tools inside the cab as they become projectiles and  may cause extra injury in an overturn.
  • wear the lap belt or seat restraint

Anyone who is required to drive on slopes should receive adequate training so they are aware of the hazards, understand the factors influencing the risks and are able to perform safe driving techniques.




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All-terrain vehicles (ATVs), Quad bikes and side-by-side utility vehicles

ATVs such as quad bikes and side-by-side utility vehicles are designed to cope with a wide variety of off-road conditions, but if used carelessly can very rapidly become unstable.

Quad bike ATVs

Many quad bike fatalities in the UK have been caused by head injuries. Helmets would have prevented most, if not all, of these deaths. You should always wear a suitable helmet when riding a quad bike.

The long seat on a quad bike allows operators to shift their body weight backwards and forwards for different slope conditions, a technique known as ‘active’ riding. It is not for carrying passengers.

To help reduce the risks:

  • carry out safety checks and maintenance in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations, eg regularly check tyre pressures, brakes and throttle;
  • secure loads on racks and make sure they are not over loaded and evenly balanced;
  • always read and follow the owner’s manual;
  • stick to planned routes, where possible, and walk new routes if necessary to check for hidden obstructions, hollows or other hazards;
  • take extra care with trailed or mounted equipment and understand how they affect stability;
  • make sure all riders receive adequate training.

Never carry a child as a passenger; it is illegal and will reduce your ability to control the ATV. Children under 13 years old are prohibited from using an ATV at work. Over-13s should only ride ATVs – of an appropriate size and power – after formal training on a low-power ATV.

Side-by-side utility ATVs

These vehicles have conventional sit-in seats with a steering wheel and pedals.  They may have a second row of seats and usually have a rear cargo deck or bed allowing goods to be carried.  Although the driver does not need to use active riding techniques to ensure stability the correct distribution of weight is still important.

To help reduce the risks follow the general guidance for quad bikes stated above but also:

  • Always select a machine fitted with a Roll Over Protective Structure (ROPS).
  • In addition to ROPS, the driver and passengers should wear lap belts/seat restraints to prevent them being thrown out in the event of an accident or overturn.
  • The legal requirements for training are the same as for Quad bikes.


Sit-astride ATVsSis-by-side ATVs




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Worried about your hearing?


The information on this page is mainly aimed at workers.

  • Noise is part of everyday life, but loud noise can permanently damage your hearing.
  • Young or old, once you lose your hearing you can never get it back.
  • New regulations have been introduced to better protect workers from noise at work from April 2006.

Am I at risk?

You are at risk if you can answer ‘yes’ to any of these questions about the noise where you work:

  • Is the noise intrusive – like a busy street, a vacuum cleaner or a crowded restaurant – for most of the working day?
  • Do you have to raise your voice to have a normal conversation when about 2 m apart for at least part of the day?
  • Do you use noisy powered tools or machinery for over half an hour a day?
  • Do you work in a noisy industry, eg construction, demolition or road repair; woodworking; plastics processing; engineering; textile manufacture; general fabrication; forging, pressing or stamping; paper or board making; canning or bottling; foundries?
  • Are there noises because of impacts (eg hammering, drop forging, pneumatic impact tools etc), explosive sources such as cartridge-operated tools or detonators, or guns?
  • Do you have muffled hearing at the end of the day, even if it is better by the next morning?

Symptoms and early signs of hearing loss

  • Conversation becomes difficult or impossible
  • Your family complains about the television being too loud
  • You have trouble using the telephone
  • You find it difficult to catch sounds like ‘t’, ‘d’ and ‘s’, so you confuse similar words
  • Permanent tinnitus (ringing, whistling, buzzing or humming in the ears) can also be caused

Generally hearing loss is gradual. By the time you notice it, it is probably too late. We want to prevent hearing loss before it happens. You can also suffer instant damage from very loud or explosive noises.

People’s own stories

Dye house

A dyer who worked in a dyehouse for 15 years had a hearing check and was found to have 50% hearing loss at the age of 37. He now has problems using the phone, and needs an amplifier. Traffic is hard to hear unless he is right next to it, so crossing a road becomes stressful. When driving he often stays in 3rd gear too long as he can’t hear the engine revving. Hearing loss could have been prevented with hearing protection.


A woman working in the textiles industry, only realised something needed to be done about her hearing loss when at the age of 40 she could not hear the phone ringing any more. Such hearing loss could have been prevented in the short-term with hearing protection. In the longer term, other ways of reducing exposure included quieter machines, maintenance, and changing job patterns.


A trombone player suffered dulling of his hearing after 20 years of playing. These problems may have been avoided if the orchestras he played in had tried different layouts or used risers that allowed him to play over the heads of those in front – rather than use them as human sound absorbers! He could also have tried to get used to wearing flat response earplugs so that he could still hear all frequencies.


A 24-year-old DJ found that, after working in a club where the sound system was particularly loud, he went home with a ringing sensation and it took several days for his ears to recover. The ringing in one ear has never completely stopped and he has become sensitive to loud music. He is now careful to wear suitable earplugs when DJ-ing.

Want to help?

Discover what it sounds like to have noise-induced hearing loss

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health link to external website Play around with the Noise Meter and hear the different sounds and sound intensities of everyday objects

Tasks and industries

Jobs and industries most likely to involve noise include:

  • Construction
  • Demolition or road repair
  • Woodworking
  • Plastics processing
  • Engineering
  • Textile manufacture
  • General fabrication
  • Forging, pressing or stamping
  • Paper or board making
  • Canning or bottling
  • Foundries


Tools and equipment that can cause hearing loss include:

  • Hammering
  • Drop forging
  • Pneumatic impact tools etc
  • Drills
  • Chainsaws
  • Explosive sources such as cartridge-operated tools or detonators, or guns

Many of these hand-held tools also transmit vibration into your hands and arms.

How do I protect myself?

Co-operate. Help your employer to do what is needed to protect your hearing. Make sure you use properly any noise control devices (eg noise enclosures), and follow any working methods that are put in place. Also attend hearing checks. This means you need to take some responsibility for your hearing.

Wear any hearing protection you are given. Wear it properly (you should be trained how to do this), and make sure you wear it all the time when you are doing noisy work, and when you are in hearing protection areas. Taking it off even for a short while means that your hearing could still be damaged. Remember that there is no cure for deafness.

Look after your hearing protection. Your employer should tell you how to look after it and where you can get it from. Make sure you understand what you need to do.

Report any problems with your hearing protection or noise control devices straight away. Let your employer or safety representative know. If you have any ear trouble, let your employer know.

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Human factors: Behavioural safety approaches – an introduction (also known as behaviour modification)

Why is it commonly used?

  • Significant number of accidents reportedly caused by inappropriate behaviour
  • Good vehicle for management and workforce participation
  • Can improve the visibility of managers
  • Behaviours and actions influence culture through attitudes and perceptions
  • Behaviours determine the performance of systems

Key features

  • Define ‘safe’ and ‘unsafe’ behaviour
  • All involve observation of behaviour in the workplace
    • By managers and/or peers
    • With/without targets
  • Provide feedback
    • Reinforce safe behaviour
    • ‘re-educate’ unsafe behaviour
  • Feedback ranges from on-the-spot specific feedback and discussion, to impersonalised general data


  • Discussing safety in the workplace
  • Learning to communicate constructively
  • Management visibility
  • Employee engagement in safety
  • Managers/supervisors (when involved)
  • Learn to observe
  • Learn to act promptly on unsafe acts
  • Can learn about safety leadership
  • Learn to think about aspects of human factors
  • Can provide some leading indicators for safety
  • Can actually change behaviour (“cognitive dissonance”)
  • Will identify dangerous situations


  • Rule violation vs good rules?
  • BIG, disciplined effort required
    • Very often fails through lack of real commitment or discipline
    • Some changes will be expensive
  • Not ‘owned’ by everyone
  • ‘Off the peg’ or consultant-led programmes can fail because of poor fit with local style/culture (UK/US)
  • Trust levels amongst management and employees must match.
  • Lack of friendly communication/Directive style of management

More pitfalls

  • May not be compatible with other messages
  • Focus on easy, intuitive issues
  • Tend to ignore low probability, high consequence risks. ‘Boots not leaks’ – can draw attention away from process safety
  • Can shift onus away from management onto individual
  • Don’t address significant impacts of management behaviour
  • ‘Big brother’ /blame culture /Oh no, not another programme. . .
  • High short-term expectations
  • Failed programme = worse situation than start

Inspection & assessment issues

  • What is the evidence that behaviour change will improve safety? (as opposed to better procedures or easier to use equipment for example).
  • How is the programme linked to the Safety Management System (SMS)?
  • How do they address tough issues? (i.e. costly remedial work, time pressure)
  • Do they understand the programme and its strengths and weakness (i.e. competence)?
  • Are programme goals linked to other goals, i.e. team working?
  • What happens when an observation card is completed? (workforce experience vs. management view)
  • Are they knowledgeable, intelligent customers?

Advice for companies considering behavioural approaches:  Some Do’s and Don’ts


  • Be sure that it is really what you need right now
  • Find out (from employees) whether signals they get from management about safety are the first issue to address
  • Network with others – not only those suggested by the consultants
  • Learn what you can from alternative techniques available
  • Make sure the system is your own, in style, language, presentation etc.
  • Pilot, and only roll-out when confident of success
  • Use it as a dialogue – and that means LISTEN to your employees!
  • Spend considerable effort to get good, strong facilitators who understand safety
  • Make sure that participants focus on root causes of behaviours


  • Underestimate the effort and planning required
  • Be over-optimistic
  • Get carried away and lose focus on other aspects of safety
  • Believe that the ‘Heinrich triangle’ works for occupational ill-health, minor personal injuries and major accidents
  • Bother at all unless:
    • You’re confident that you already have a strong SMS and a safe workplace
    • Senior management can be made to think it was their idea all along

Increasing the effectiveness /chance of success

  • Ownership – developed in-house is best
  • Good fit with organisations needs, culture and SMS
  • Commitment (involvement is better) from management
  • Good communication and understanding of programme
  • Approach seen as ‘fair and just’ – trust
  • Managers act as role models


  • There are many advantages to doing Behavioural Safety
  • But these programmes (and cultural change) take time, resources and a concerted effort – senior management commitment
  • A useful addition to the toolkit for occupational safety, but limited benefits for the control of major hazards
  • Bias towards measurable success; can pull focus away from basics of SMS and process safety
  • Must address engineering and systems as well
  • Include workforce and management behaviours
  • Effectiveness of program largely depends on existing culture.

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Human factors: Design

Why is design important?

The design of control rooms, plant and equipment can have a large impact on human performance. Designing tasks, equipment and work stations to suit the user can reduce human error, accidents and ill-health. Failure to observe ergonomic principles can have serious consequences for individuals and for the whole organisation. Effective use of ergonomics will make work safer, healthier and more productive.

The earlier that consideration is given to human factors and ergonomics in the design process, the better the results are likely to be. However, it’s important to use human factors and ergonomics expertise appropriately by involving people with knowledge of the working processes involved and the end user. For that reason, user involvement is key to designing operable and maintainable plant and systems.

Poor design contributes to work-related ill-health and has been found to be a root cause of accidents including major accidents e.g. Texas City, Herald of Free Enterprise and Ladbroke Grove.

The application of human factors to the design and development of systems and services is often called Human Factors Engineering or Human Factors Integration. Note that this approach has been developed in relation to large projects e.g. for defence, rail and similar applications, and that a wider view of human factors may need to be taken for more conventional design.

Key principles in design

  • Equipment should be designed in accordance with key ergonomics standards including EN614 Parts 1 and 2.
  • Control rooms should be designed in accordance with key ergonomics standards including EN11064, EEMUA 191 and EEMUA 201.
  • Users should be involved in the design process. This should include different types of users including operatives, maintenance and systems support personnel.
  • Consideration should be given to operator characteristics including body size, strength and mental capability.
  • Plant and processes should be designed for operability and maintainability and other elements of the life cycle should not be neglected e.g. decommissioning.
  • Consideration should be given to all foreseeable operating conditions including upsets and emergencies.
  • Consideration should be given to the interface between the end user and the system.

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Human factors: Workload

Why is workload important?

Humans have limited capability for processing information (such as from displays, alarms, documentation and communications), holding items in memory, making decisions and performing tasks. Excess workload can result in human performance issues such as slower task performance and errors such as slips, lapses or mistakes. It should also be noted that underload can also lead to human performance issues such as boredom, loss of situation awareness and reduced alertness. Workload issues may be more relevant in times of downsizing or temporarily during peaks (such as incidents or turnarounds).

Workload is related to competence (e.g. some tasks can require less processing in experienced personnel), working hours/patterns (e.g. underload in nightshift control room operators), organisational change (where tasks or roles are changed) and staffing levels. Workload may be higher in some industries/roles where there is an inadequate supply of skilled staff. A high (or perceived high) workload not only adversely affects safety, but also negatively affects job satisfaction and, as a result, contributes to high turnover and staff shortages.

An assessment of workload may be required if you wish to determine whether you have sufficient staff; if capacity exists for additional tasks, or whether personnel can cope with emergencies, incidents or process upsets.

Workload should be assessed if new tasks, equipment, or systems are introduced; or where changes are made to roles and responsibilities.

Key principles in workload

  • Performance can be affected by workload being too high – or too low.
  • Workload can ‘drift’ over time as new activities are added gradually.
  • Ensure that workload has been assessed for emergency situations as well as for normal operating (“steady state”) conditions.
  • Consider the whole team, and whether tasks can be redistributed between team members or shifts.
  • Assess the balance of workload across a shift – can the timing of activities be redistributed to spread workload (e.g. issuing Permits to Work at several periods rather than just at the start of the shift)?
  • Workload should be reconsidered during unusual activities, such as ‘campaign maintenance’, or start-up activities on process plants.
  • Experienced operators may be able to utilise strategies for handling high task demands; whereas inexperienced staff may be less able to cope (think about when you were learning to drive).
  • Perform a task analysis to understand exactly what staff are required to do, when, and what information they need to perform these tasks. Involve the workforce in these analyses.
  • Task analysis should consider both physical and mental workload.
  • Ensure that workload assessment considers visual inputs (e.g. scanning display screens, looking out of windscreens, CCTV), auditory inputs (telephones, radios, alarms), cognitive activities (analysis of inputs, decision making) and psychomotor skills (physical actions, such as controlling a process using a mouse, keyboard, or buttons and levers).
  • Consider not just the number of personnel, but how they are being utilised.
  • Set clear roles and responsibilities, ensuing that staff are clear on their priorities. This will help to ensure that even when workload is high, staff are able to focus on key activities.
  • Some tasks may be re-allocated from humans to machines/computers, or vice-versa; considering human performance, safety, maintainability, personnel requirements etc.

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Human factors: Supervision

Why is supervision important?

Supervision is an important Performance Influencing Factor PDF that is believed to have contributed to a number of major accidents (Texas City, 2005; Texaco Milford Haven, 1994; Hickson and Welch, 1992).  Problems can emerge because of poorly defined responsibilities, heavy workloads, inadequate resources, or as a result of removing supervisory roles altogether.

Many supervisors are given a vital role during emergency response, yet are often poorly trained in these key responsibilities.  Supervisors may also have an important part to play in managing contractors and/or issuing permits-to-work (the public enquiry into the Piper Alpha explosion in 1998 concluded that the operating company failed to ensure that a key supervisor was sufficiently competent in the operation of the PTW system).

Other key supervisory functions include planning and allocating work, making decisions, monitoring performance and compliance, providing leadership and building teamwork, and ensuring workforce involvement.

Crucially, supervisors can have a significant, positive impact on a range of local performance influencing factors (compliance with procedures, training and competence, safety-critical communication, staffing levels and workload, shift work and fatigue, organisational culture etc.)

The traditional ‘supervisor’ represents a crucial, final link between planning a job and its execution.  However, it is worth remembering that supervisory functions may be shared between a number of front-line ‘shift managers’, or between individual employees in a self-managed team (SMT).  While the switch to SMTs is often associated with significant commercial benefits and improvements to job satisfaction, it is also argued that the effectiveness of supervision – especially in the context of safety – is reduced.  However, this need not be the case: health and safety performance can be assured provided the team has the necessary focus, competence and resources to deliver a set of clearly-defined supervisory functions. Research also suggests that the introduction of SMTs can foster active employee involvement.

Whatever the management structure, supervision remains a critical organisational factor and its importance should be duly and proportionately reflected within an organisation’s safety management system.

Key principles in supervision

  • Assess your current supervisory arrangements to ensure that all key supervisory functions are clearly defined and appropriately allocated (and re-assess them prior to any organisational change).  A useful free checklist and assessment tool are provided in RR292 (see below).
  • Select the right people for the job and provide additional training where appropriate.  Ensure relevant individuals have:
    • the necessary skills and aptitude for supervisory activities (planning, communication, delegation etc);
    • a thorough understanding of local hazards and control measures;
    • the experience and credibility to gain respect from others.
  • Provide adequate supervision for contractors and other third parties on site, and make these arrangements clear to everyone.
  • Support supervisors / self-managed teams in their roles and responsibilities e.g. give them achievable targets; support them in conflict resolution etc.
  • Ensure relevant individuals have the time and the opportunity to interact with others to fulfil all of their supervisory responsibilities (the requirement to provide adequate resources is a key senior management function).
  • Measure, audit and review all aspects of supervisory performance.

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Human factors: Contractors

Contractorisation is the process of downsizing, restructuring or other initiatives to enable contractors to be used to replace or supplement company staff in performing activities. It is often known as outsourcing. Contractors are organisations or individuals who provide a service, but are not directly employed by the client company. These services may be provided onsite (e.g. specialist maintenance activities, asbestos removal) or elsewhere (e.g. provision of design or safety analyses). However, any company using the services of a contractor must retain an understanding and knowledge of the product or service being supplied – and be mindful of responsibility for managing safe operations.

Key principles in contractorisation

  • Selection (including resources, equipment, knowledge and experience);
  • Coordination between clients, contractors and sub-contractors (i.e. who does what, when and how);
  • Induction to site rules, procedures, hazards and emergency arrangements;
  • Supervision (by whom – including on-the-job and checks of completed work);
  • Competence of contractors (e.g. consider the role of the client and the contractor’s management);
  • Assessment of new hazards introduced by the activities of contractors – which could be direct (e.g. in the case of asbestos removal) or indirect (e.g. caused by undetected, latent faults left behind when a contractor completes work);
  • Review of the contractor selection and management system.

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Human factors: Organisational change

Why is organisational change an issue?
Many organisations face continuous pressure to change in order to meet their business objectives in a competitive market place.  Industry is undergoing increasing change and there has been, and continues to be, pressure for organisational change and staff reductions.

Organisational changes such as reducing staffing levels, using contractors or outsourcing, combining departments, or changes to roles & responsibilities are usually not analysed and controlled as thoroughly as plant or process changes. Such changes can, if inadequately conceived or implemented, have a detrimental effect on safety.  Even subtle changes to organisations can have significant impacts on the management of hazards.

Rapid or continuous change can also have a detrimental effect on health and poorly managed organisational change can increase the workforce’s experience of stress.

Key principles of managing organisational change

  1. The key issue is that the direct and indirect effects of a proposed change on the control of hazards should be identified and assessed.
  2. Due to the greater potential consequences of an accident, major accident hazard sites should aim for higher reliability in their planning and decision making.
  3. Avoid too many simultaneous changes which may result in inadequate attention to some or all.  Phase changes whenever possible.
  4. Organisational change should be planned in a thorough, systematic, and realistic way; similar to the processes for managing plant change.
  5. Two aspects of the change need risk assessment: risks and opportunities resulting from the change (where you want to get to) and risks arising from the process of change (how you get there).
  6. Consult with staff (including contractors) before, during and after the change – don’t miss serious issues hidden among all the natural concerns.
  7. Ensure that all key tasks and responsibilities are identified and successfully transferred to the new organisation.
  8. Provide training and experienced support/supervision for staff with new or changed roles.
  9. Consider reviews of plans and assessments by independent internal or external experts – be prepared to challenge.
  10. Remember that change can happen even to apparently static organisations e.g. the effects of an ageing workforce.

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Safety critical communications

Why are good communications important?

Spoken and written communication can be critical in maintaining safety. This can include general communications in the form of safety information, communications between team members or between different teams during operations or maintenance work, and emergency communications.
All personnel including employees, contractors and visitors, should have access to key information to help them negotiate the hazards in the work place safely.  This may include key findings from risk assessments, induction to site, evacuation drills, emergency instructions, safety warnings and so on.

Communications are very important in a wide range of safety critical tasks and activities such as lifting operations, emergency response, entry to confined spaces, as well as coordination of activities between different parties and organisations.

This Key Topic contains links to two related issues:

  • A key area of communications, particularly on major hazard sites, is shift communication including Shift handover.
  • A Permit-to-Work, or PTW, is effectively a means of communication between site management, plant supervisors and operators, and those who carry out the work.

The individual topic pages include an outline of why each of these two areas is important, along with a list of key principles to consider and further guidance material.

Key principles in safety critical communications:

  • Identify who needs to communicate, and what their communication needs are.  This could be identified during risk assessment.
  • Companies should consider the medium (e.g. face-to-face, procedure, radio) and method (e.g. written, verbal)
  • Consider timings of key communications e.g. draw attention to hazards before people are required to carry out tasks.
  • Language should be appropriate to the workforce (consider literacy, first language) and use appropriate terminology.
  • Highlight safety critical steps in procedures and draw attention to them in training.
  • If it is really important to get a message across, consider using two or more methods/media of communication e.g. written back up to a verbal communication.
  • Remember that putting signs up is not a substitute for communicating, though it may be part of it.

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Human factors: Fatigue & Shiftwork

Why is fatigue important?

More than 3.5 million people are employed as shift workers in the UK. They work in a wide variety of industries including the emergency services, healthcare, the utilities, transport, manufacturing (including oil, gas & chemical industries), entertainment and retail. Poorly designed shift-working arrangements and long working hours that do not balance the demands of work with time for rest and recovery can result in fatigue, accidents, injuries and ill health.

Fatigue refers to the issues that arise from excessive working time or poorly designed shift patterns. It is generally considered to be a decline in mental and/or physical performance that results from prolonged exertion, sleep loss and/or disruption of the internal clock. It is also related to workload, in that workers are more easily fatigued if their work is machine-paced, complex or monotonous.

Fatigue results in slower reactions, reduced ability to process information, memory lapses, absent-mindedness, decreased awareness, lack of attention, underestimation of risk, reduced coordination etc. Fatigue can lead to errors and accidents, ill-health and injury, and reduced productivity. It is often a root cause of major accidents e.g. Herald of Free Enterprise, Chernobyl, Texas City, Clapham Junction, Challenger and Exxon Valdez.

Fatigue has also been implicated in 20% of accidents on major roads and is said to cost the UK £115 – £240 million per year in terms of work accidents alone.

Key principles in fatigue

  1. Fatigue needs to be managed, like any other hazard.
  2. It is important not to underestimate the risks of fatigue. For example, the incidence of accidents and injuries has been found to be higher on night shifts, after a succession of shifts, when shifts are long and when there are inadequate breaks.
  3. The legal duty is on employers to manage risks from fatigue, irrespective of any individual’s willingness to work extra hours or preference for certain shift patterns for social reasons. Compliance with the Working Time Regulations alone is insufficient to manage the risks of fatigue.
  4. Changes to working hours need to be risk assessed. The key considerations should be the principles contained in HSE’s guidance. Risk assessment may include the use of tools such as HSE’s ‘fatigue risk index’.
  5. Employees should be consulted on working hours and shift patterns. However, note that employees may prefer certain shift patterns that are unhealthy and likely to cause fatigue.
  6. Develop a policy that specifically addresses and sets limits on working hours, overtime and shift-swapping, and which guards against fatigue.
  7. Implement the policy and make arrangements to monitor and enforce it. This may include developing a robust system of recording working hours, overtime, shift-swapping and on-call working.
  8. Problems with overtime and shift-swapping may indicate inadequate resource allocation and staffing levels.
  9. There are many different shift work-schedules and each schedule has different features. This sheer diversity of work and workplaces means that there is no single optimal shift system that suits everyone. However, a planned and systematic approach to assessing and managing the risks of shift work can improve the health and safety of workers.
  10. There are a number of key risk factors in shift schedule design, which must be considered when assessing and managing the risks of shift work. These are the workload, the work activity, shift timing and duration, direction of rotation and the number and length of breaks during and between shifts. Other features of the workplace environment such as the physical environment, management issues and employee welfare can also contribute to the risks associated with shift work.
  11. Sleep disturbances can lead to a ‘sleep debt’ and fatigue. Night workers are particularly at risk of fatigue because their day sleep is often lighter, shorter and more easily disturbed because of daytime noise and a natural reluctance to sleep during daylight.

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Human factors: Managing human failures

Everyone can make errors no matter how well trained and motivated they are. However in the workplace, the consequences of such human failure can be severe. Analysis of accidents and incidents shows that human failure contributes to almost all accidents and exposures to substances hazardous to health. Many major accidents e.g. Texas City, Piper Alpha, Chernobyl, were initiated by human failure. In order to avoid accidents and ill-health, companies need to manage human failure as robustly as the technical and engineering measures they use for that purpose.

The challenge is to develop error tolerant systems and to prevent errors from initiating; to manage human error proactively it should be addressed as part of the risk assessment process, where:

  • Significant potential human errors PDF are identified,
  • Those factors that make errors more or less likely are identified (such as poor design, distraction, time pressure, workload, competence, morale, noise levels and communication systems) – Performance Influencing Factors (PIFs) PDF
  • Control measures are devised and implemented, preferably by redesign of the task or equipment

This Key Topic is also very relevant when trying to learn lessons following an incident or near miss. This also involves identifying the human errors that led to the accident and those factors that made such errors more likely – PIFs PDF .

Types of human failure:

It is important to be aware that human failure is not random; understanding why errors occur and the different factors which make them worse will help you develop more effective controls. There are two main types of human failure: errors and violations.

A human error is an action or decision which was not intended. A violation is a deliberate deviation from a rule or procedure. HSG 48provides a fuller description of types of error, but the following may be a helpful introduction.

Some errors are slips or lapses, often “actions that were not as planned” or unintended actions. They occur during a familiar task and include slips (e.g. pressing the wrong button or reading the wrong gauge) and lapses (e.g. forgetting to carry out a step in a procedure). These types of error occur commonly in highly trained procedures where the person carrying them out does not need to concentrate on what they are doing. These cannot be eliminated by training, but improved design can reduce their likelihood and provide a more error tolerant system.

Other errors are Mistakes or errors of judgement or decision-making where the “intended actions are wrong” i.e. where we do the wrong thing believing it to be right. These tend to occur in situations where the person does not know the correct way of carrying out a task either because it is new and unexpected, or because they have not be properly trained (or both). Often in such circumstances, people fall back on remembered rules from similar situations which may not be correct. Training based on good procedures is the key to avoiding mistakes.

Violations (non-compliances, circumventions, shortcuts and work-arounds) differ from the above in that they are intentional but usually well-meaning failures where the person deliberately does not carry out the procedure correctly. They are rarely malicious (sabotage) and usually result from an intention to get the job done as efficiently as possible. They often occur where the equipment or task has been poorly designed and/or maintained. Mistakes resulting from poor training (i.e. people have not been properly trained in the safe working procedure) are often mistaken for violations. Understanding that violations are occurring and the reason for them is necessary if effective means for avoiding them are to be introduced. Peer pressure, unworkable rules and incomplete understanding can give rise to violations. HSG48 provides further information.

There are several ways to manage violations, including designing violations out, taking steps to increase their detection, ensuring that rules and procedures are relevant/practical and explaining the rationale behind certain rules. Involving the workforce in drawing up rules increases their acceptance. Getting to the root cause of any violation is the key to understanding and hence preventing the violation.

This aide-memoire on Human Failure Types PDF explains in more detail, along with examples and typical control measures.

Understanding these different types of human failure can help identify control measures but you need to be careful you do not oversimplify the situation. In some cases it can be difficult to place an error in a single category – it may result from a slip or a mistake, for example. There may be a combination of underlying causes requiring a combination of preventative measures. It may also be useful to think about whether the failure is an error of omission (forgetting or missing out a key step) or an error of commission (e.g. doing something out of sequence or using the wrong control), and taking action to prevent that type of error.

The likelihood of these human failures is determined by the condition of a finite number of ‘performance influencing factors PDF’ , such as design of interfaces, distraction, time pressure, workload, competence, morale, noise levels and communication systems.

Key Principles in Managing Human Failure:

  • Human failure is normal and predictable. It can be identified and managed.
  • Industry should tackle error reduction in a structured and proactive way, with as much rigour as the technical aspects of safety. Managing human failure should be integral to the safety management system.
  • A poorly designed activity might be prone to a combination of errors and more than one solution may be necessary.
  • Involve workers in design of tasks and procedures.
  • Risk assessment should identify where human failure can occur in safety critical tasks, the performance influencing factors which might make it more likely, and the control measures necessary to prevent it.
  • Incident Investigations should seek to identify why individuals have failed rather than stopping at ‘operator error’.

Common Pitfalls in Managing Human Failure:

There is more to managing human failure in complex systems than simply considering the actions of individual operators. However, there is obvious merit in managing the performance of the personnel who play an important role in preventing and controlling risks, as long as the context in which this behaviour occurs is also considered.

When assessing the role of people in carrying out a task, be careful that you do not:

  • Treat operators as if they are superhuman, able to intervene heroically in emergencies.
  • Assume that an operator will always be present, detect a problem and immediately take appropriate action.
  • Assume that people will always follow procedures.
  • Rely on operators being well-trained, when it is not clear how the training provided relates to accident prevention or control.
  • Rely on training to effectively tackle slips/lapses.
  • State that operators are highly motivated and thus not prone to unintentional failures or deliberate violations.
  • Ignore the human component completely and failing to discuss human performance at all in risk assessments.
  • Inappropriately apply techniques, such as detailing every task on site and therefore losing sight of targeting resources where they will be most effective.
  • In quantitative risk assessment, provide precise probabilities of human failure (usually indicating very low chance of failure) without documenting assumptions/data sources.

Companies should consider whether any of the above apply to how their organisation manages human factors.

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Human factors: Procedures

Why is good procedure design important?

Procedures, including method statements, work instructions, permits to work etc, are agreed safe ways of doing things. They usually consist of instructions and related information needed to help carry out tasks safely. Procedures may include step-by-step instructions, checklists, decision aids, diagrams, flow-charts and other types of job aids.

Problems with procedures are linked to numerous incidents and frequently cited as one of the causes of major accidents. The inadequate management of procedures have not only contributed to disasters such as Bhopal, Piper Alpha and Clapham Junction, but also to fatalities, personal injuries and ill health.  The main causes are too much reliance placed on procedures to control risk, a failure to follow safe working procedures or the use of inadequate procedures.

Operating procedures may not be the best way of controlling hazards, at least not as the sole defence against human error.

Key principles in procedure design

  • Risk assessment should clearly establish if procedures are an appropriate control measure. The results of the risk assessment should inform development of the procedure.
  • Consider the links between procedures and competency – they are two sides of the same coin and should support each other e.g. on-the-job competency would include training on key procedures. Procedures do not replace competency.
  • Have a system for managing procedures – outlining e.g. how to decide which tasks need procedures, how these are developed, complied with and reviewed/updated. Use task analysis methods to inform the content of procedures e.g. walking and talking through the task with users.
  • Use a format, style and level of detail appropriate to the user, task and consequences of failure.  Fit for purpose – one size does not fit all.  Support compliance with procedures through user involvement and by designing the task, job, environment, equipment, etc.

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Human factors: Training & Competence

Why is competence important?

This can be defined as the ability to undertake responsibilities and perform activities to a recognised standard on a regular basis.  It is a combination of skills, experience and knowledge.  The inadequate management of competence has not only contributed to disasters such as Esso Longford and BP Texas City, but also to fatalities, personal injuries and ill health.

Key principles in competence

  1. Competence assurance should be linked to key responsibilities, activities and tasks identified in risk assessments.
  2. Competency assurance systems should aim to establish and maintain competency for all those involved in safety-related work, including managers.  This is particularly important in the management and prevention of major accidents.
  3. Training is an important component of establishing competency but is not sufficient on its own. For example, consolidation of knowledge and skills through practice is a key part of developing competency.
  4. Competence assurance systems should take account of foreseeable work and operating conditions – including infrequent and complex activities, emergency situations and upsets, maintenance etc.
  5. Training and competence assessment methods should be appropriate to the hazard profile of the tasks being undertaken. For example, competency assurance systems for safety critical tasks should be more robust.
  6. ‘On-the-job’ training should be structured and linked to risk assessments and associated control measures including procedures. In safety critical environments, on-the-job training should be supported by other forms of training where appropriate e.g. classroom training, simulation.
  7. Training should be validated (‘Did it deliver what it was supposed to?’), and evaluated (‘Is this the right kind of training for our needs?’) and recorded.
  8. There should be refresher training for infrequent, complex or safety critical tasks and this may include appropriate reassessment.
  9. Vocational qualifications should include site-specific aspects and link appropriately to the hazards and risks in your workplace.
  10. Aim to achieve a suitable balance between competence and supervision.
  11. Careful consideration should be given to the potential consequences of outsourcing of safety-related work. Companies must take steps to ensure that contractors are competent to carry out health and safety-related work. Companies should seek to retain intelligent customer capability to ensure that they can appropriately manage and oversee the work.

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Introduction to human factors

Reducing error and influencing behaviour (HSG48) is the key document in understanding HSE’s approach to human factors. It gives a simple introduction to generic industry guidance on human factors, which it defines as:

  • “Human factors refer to environmental, organisational and job factors, and human and individual characteristics, which influence behaviour at work in a way which can affect health and safety”

This definition includes three interrelated aspects that must be considered: the job, the individual and the organisation:

  • The job: including areas such as the nature of the task, workload, the working environment, the design of displays and controls, and the role of procedures. Tasks should be designed in accordance with ergonomic principles to take account of both human limitations and strengths. This includes matching the job to the physical and the mental strengths and limitations of people. Mental aspects would include perceptual, attentional and decision making requirements.
  • The individual: including his/her competence, skills, personality, attitude, and risk perception. Individual characteristics influence behaviour in complex ways. Some characteristics such as personality are fixed; others such as skills and attitudes may be changed or enhanced.
  • The organisation: including work patterns, the culture of the workplace, resources, communications, leadership and so on. Such factors are often overlooked during the design of jobs but have a significant influence on individual and group behaviour.

In other words, human factors is concerned with what people are being asked to do (the task and its characteristics), who is doing it (the individual and their competence) and where they are working (the organisation and its attributes), all of which are influenced by the wider societal concern, both local and national.

Human factors interventions will not be effective if they consider these aspects in isolation. The scope of what we mean by human factors includes organisational systems and is considerably broader than traditional views of human factors/ergonomics. Human factors can, and should, be included within a good safety management system and so can be examined in a similar way to any other risk control system.

Human Factors: The Business Benefits

If you think safety’s expensive, try having an accident … Managing human failures is essential to prevent major accidents, occupational accidents and ill health, all of which can cost businesses money, reputation and potentially their continued existence.

Successful businesses achieve high productivity and quality while ensuring health and safety. Good technology combined with the best work systems can help to achieve these goals. The best work systems are based on having a skilled workforce, with well-designed jobs that are appropriate to individuals’ abilities.

The influence of biological, psychological and organisational factors on an individual at work can affect their health and safety, but it also affects their efficiency and productivity. For example, if:

  • Someone needs to exert a large proportion of their strength to complete a task they are more likely to suffer injury and carry out the task inefficiently – possibly causing damage to the product and tools; or
  • The mental demands of a task are too high, perhaps involving diagnosing faults under significant time pressures then there can be both a health issue for the employee but also a quality, and possibly safety issue for the production line, process and plant; or
  • Individuals have very limited scope for determining how to do their job then they may lack motivation and job satisfaction and be less effective at work.

Individuals have a wide range of abilities and limitations. A Human Factors (or Ergonomics) approach focuses on how to make the best use of these capabilities: by designing jobs and equipment which are fit for people. This not only improves their health and safety but often ensures a better managed, more effective organisation.

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Human factors: Shift handover

Effective communication is important in all organisations when a task and its associated responsibilities are handed over to another person or work team.  This can occur at shift changeover, between shift and day workers, or between different functions of an organisation within a shift e.g. operations and maintenance.

Why is handover important?

The goal of handover is the accurate reliable communication of task-relevant information across shift changes or between teams thereby ensuring continuity of safe and effective working.  Effective handover consists of three elements:

  • A period of preparation by out-going personnel;
  • Handover where out-going and in-coming personnel communicate to exchange task-relevant information; and
  • Cross-checking of information by in-coming personnel as they assume responsibility for the task.

Many accidents have occurred because of failure of communication at shift handover, the majority of these involved planned maintenance work. In the 1983 Sellafield Beach Incident, highly radioactive waste liquor was accidentally discharged to sea, due to a failure of communication between shifts. The Cullen Report concluded that one of the many factors that contributed to the Piper Alpha disaster was failure of information transmission at shift handover.

Key principles in handover

To ensure safe handover, organisations should:

  1. Identify higher risk handovers;
  2. develop staff’s communication skills;
  3. emphasise the importance of shift handover;
  4. provide procedures for shift handover;
  5. plan for maintenance work to be completed within one shift if possible.

Shift handover should be:

  1. conducted face-to-face;
  2. two-way, with both participants taking joint responsibility;
  3. done using both verbal and written communication;
  4. based on an analysis of the information needs of incoming staff;
  5. given as much time and resource as necessary.

Improvements should also be made by:

  1. designing support equipment, such as logs and computer displays, with consideration of the operators needs;
  2. involving the end-users when implementing any changes to existing communication methods at shift handover.




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Overturning tractors and other self-propelled vehicles

What you should know

All vehicles can overturn.  Accidents on slopes are not confined to hilly or mountainous regions.  They happen just as easily on or near banks, ditches, drains, ramps, uneven or flat ground.  Vehicles can also overturn on artificial slopes such as ramps, or when performing tasks such as rolling silage,

When working on slopes the main risks are:

  • Loss of control
    This occurs when wheels lose traction rending the brakes and steering ineffective.  It it easier to lose control of a vehicle on a slope because of the effect of gravity and forward momentum.
  • Runaways
    Loss of control can lead to a runaway where the vehicle starts to move down the slope and the driver is unable to bring it back under control
  • Jack-knifing
    This happens when a trailer or trailed appliance pushes into the tractor and slews the tractor round.  Poor ground conditions, heavy loading and poor wheel grip increase the risk
  • Overturns
    A vehicle may overturn sideways eg when attempting to traverse across a slope diagonally, or trying to turn down a slope as a consequence of a runaway and jack knife.  Machines can also overturn forwards or backwards depending on the situation.

What you need to do

1.  Plan the job.

Before working on slopes you should assess the risks.  Factors to consider include:

  • Gradient
    Different vehicles have different capabilities.  Gradients on a slope can vary with some parts steeper than others.
  • surface
    Different surfaces can affect how well a vehicle can deal with a slope eg grass, earth, loose stones
  • Ground conditions
    A slope that is safe during dry conditions may become unsafe if wet, waterlogged, frozen or thawing.  Uneven ground with ruts, pot holes and deep tracks can affect stability
  • Weather
    Wet and windy weather may increase the risks
  • Obstacles
    Tree stumps and rocks may be struck, particularly when hidden by vegetation, and cause sideways overturns if struck on the uphill side
  • Task
    The proposed task will also affect the risk.  When using rear mounted spreaders the load will decrease during spreading and this will reduce rear wheel grip. Tractors with trailed rollers, four-wheel trailers etc will have extra thrust imposed with no additional weight – they may slide away out of control.

2.  Select a suitable vehicle fitted with a roll over protective structure (ROPS)

A roll bar or safety cab is designed to provide protection for the operator if the vehicle overturns.  Where roll over protection is fitted, you should also have a lap belt or seat restraint fitted if a machine will be used in situations where there is a risk of overturning.

  • check that the roll bar or safety cab is in good condition and correctly fitted. Corrosion and incorrect mounting bolts can cause them  to fail in an overturn;
  • never remove windows or doors from a safety cab;
  • fit a lap belt where one has not  been installed as original equipment;

To reduce the risk of an overturn:

  • make sure that tractors and machines are properly equipped and maintained, especially brakes, steering and tyres. Consider wide wheel settings for work on slopes;
  • select a machine suitable for the job.  Tractors with four wheel drive are likely to be safer to use on slopes compared to those with two wheel drive.

You may only use a tractor or self-propelled machine without ROPS in low-risk situations such as buildings and orchards or where specific exemptions exist.

3.  Work safely

Always use safe systems of work when working on slopes.  For example:

  • you should turn uphill when working across a slope, and descend straight down the gentlest gradient;
  • you cannot always safely descend a slope that you safely drove up;
  • select an appropriate gear and speed
  • take into account working with trailers, attachments and loads will change the centre of gravity

To reduce the risk of injury from an overturn:

  • stay in the cab and do not try to jump clear, as most deaths and serious injuries involve those who are crushed when they jump or are thrown out of a cab during overturning;
  • don’t carry loose items such as draw bar pins or tools inside the cab as they become projectiles and  may cause extra injury in an overturn.
  • wear the lap belt or seat restraint

Anyone who is required to drive on slopes should receive adequate training so they are aware of the hazards, understand the factors influencing the risks and are able to perform safe driving techniques.


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No more ‘cheat sheets’: Electronic logs for truckers mandatory by 2020

Truckers are known for their colourful slang, and it’s no different for the paper logbooks they often use to keep track of their time on the road.

“A lot of them call it the ‘cheat sheet,'” says Ron Arsenault, a truck driver for SLH Transport who’s based in Moncton.

That’s about to change.

The federal government has announced it will require all commercial truck and bus drivers in Canada to install electronic logging devices in their vehicles by the year 2020.

paper trucking log

Each day, truckers fill out log sheets like this that mark how long they’ve spent driving and resting. (Blair Sanderson/CBC)

Under Canadian regulations, truckers are allowed to be behind the wheel for no more 13 hours per day to limit driver fatigue.

But Arseault says drivers, especially for smaller companies, are often under pressure to meet deadlines and will fudge the logbooks. “There’s been a lot of stuff like that.”

‘No way to cheat’

He believes automated electronic logs will make the roads safer.

“It will because there’s no way to cheat on it, everything is basically written in stone, your driving time, your on-duty time, your off-duty time, it’s right there on the computer.”

Electronic logging 2

The electronic devices will allow the drivers to know how much time they legally have at the wheel before taking a break. (Steve Bruce/CBC)

Electronic logging devices, or ELDs, are already mandatory for Canadian drivers crossing the border to the United States because that country has required the use of the technology since December 2017.

The Canadian government decided to follow suit, giving truckers and commercial bus drivers until 2020 to have the technology in place.

Many truckers are eager to make the switch.

Trucker Mark Duncan

Driver Mark Duncan says electronic logs will remove the quandary some drivers face over whether to make deadlines or follow the rules around driving times. (Blair Sanderson/CBC)

Mark Duncan, who runs a regular route between Toronto and the Maritimes, says drivers won’t be able to break the rules, meaning they can’t be pressured by their employer.

“It’s going to be good for the drivers. We’re going to have lots of rest now.”

Sleep apnea a concern

But while the move to electronic logging devices hits the fast lane, another measure that would reduce driver fatigue has stalled, says Marco Beghetto, a spokesperson for the Canadian Trucking Alliance.

He says his organization was anticipating mandatory sleep apnea testing, which was a proposal that was moving forward in the United States under the Obama administration, but scrapped by President Donald Trump.

Trump Truck — Washington — March 23, 2017

U.S. President Donald Trump cited overregulation as the reason why he scrapped a proposal to test truck driver for sleep apnea. (Jim Watson/AFP/Getty Images)

“We were ready to react if Transport Canada would begin working on a similar rule,” says Beghetto.

But because Canadian regulators tend to follow the Americans, “right now, that’s sort of on the back burner,” he says.

‘Certainly a risk factor’

Lack of progress in that area is disappointing, says Dr. Glen Sullivan of the Atlantic Sleep Centre at the Saint John Regional Hospital.

Sleep apnea drastically reduces sleep quality which leads to fatigue and is likely more prevalent among long-haul truckers because of their diet and relatively sedentary lifestyle, he says.

“It is certainly a risk factor,” says Sullivan.

“In the same way, you wouldn’t want someone driving drunk, you wouldn’t want someone with a high chance of a sleep disorder [driving].”

Some Canadian trucking companies are moving ahead anyway and offering sleep apnea testing for their drivers. In some cases, they are even paying for machines that help treat the condition.

But for now, those measures are voluntary with no regulations in sight anywhere down the road.

Duncan says he’s aware of the sleep apnea problem. “It’s in the magazines, the trucking magazines.”

But right now, the focus in the industry is the 2020 deadline for the installation of electronic logging devices, he says.


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Extension Ladder Safety

4 to 1 Ratio

4 to 1 ratio

  • Place an extension ladder at a 75-1/2° angle.
    The set-back (“S”) needs to be 1 ft. for each 4 ft. of length (“L”) to the upper support point.

Safety Do’s

extension 2

  • Climb facing the ladder. Center your body between the rails. Maintain a firm grip
  • Always move one step at a time, firmly setting one foot before moving the other

extension 3

  • Haul materials up on a line rather than carry them up an extension ladder
  • Use extra caution when carrying anything on a ladder

Safety Dont’s

Safety tips's 1

  • DON’T place the base of an extension ladder too close to the building as it may tip over backward
  • DON’T place the base of an extension ladder too far away from the building, as it may slip out at the bottom.
    Set the ladder at a 75-1/2º angle

Safety tips's 2

  • DON’T over-reach, lean to one side, or try to move a ladder while on it. You could lose your balance or tip the ladder.
    Climb down and then re position the ladder closer to your work!
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How to Choose an Extension Ladder Formula

What Height?

Height of Top
Support Point
Buy This Size*
9′ max. 16′
9′ to 13′ 20′
13′ to 17′ 24′
17′ to 21′ 28′
21′ to 25′ 32′
25′ to 28′ 36′
28′ to 31′ 40′
*Reflects section overlap, ladder angle.

What Load Capacity?

your weight


material weight


Load Capacity
See Load Capacity Chart

Typically Add
75 lbs. For Heavy-Duty Projects
50 lbs. For Light-Duty Projects

200 lbs. CSA Grade 3 Household
225 lbs. CSA Grade 2 Tradesman and Farm
250 lbs. CSA Grade 1 Construction and Industrial
300 lbs. CSA Grade 1A (ANSI Type1A)
Construction and Industrial Heavy Duty
375 lbs. CSA Grade 1AA (ANSI Type1AA)
Construction and Industrial Extra Heavy-Duty
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Lack of fall protection results in $140K fine Manitoba company operating in Saskatchewan fined

A Brandon, Man. company pleaded guilty to one occupational health and safety violation and was fined $140,000 in Carlyle Provincial Court in Saskatchewan on Jan. 24.

Brad Hammond Construction pleaded guilty to contravening clause 116(2)(a) of the regulations by failing to ensure that workers use a fall protection system at a work area where a worker may fall 3 metres or more, resulting in a serious injury to a worker.

The company was fined $100,000 plus a $40,000 surcharge.  One other charge was stayed in court.

On July 25, 2016, Saskatchewan’s Occupational Health and Safety was notified of an incident that occurred on July 18, 2016.  A worker was paralyzed after falling off a roof at a work site near Arcola, Sask.

Source: Government of Saskatchewan

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Tuition for 1 Semester ( 8 Week Program) at NAIT, SAIT or RDC For Trades Apprenticeship Application up to $1400 Will Be Paid After The Sale of 25 CSA S.W.A.T Boots (PLEASE SHARE)

Inuksuk Safety would like to thank all the tradesmen that have purchased S.W.A.T CSA Work Boots by giving the tuition for one person attending NAIT, SAIT or RDC for Trades after the Sale of every 25 pairs of CSA Work boots. Applications for the tuition can be made at this PAGE. Name of those who receive the tuition will appear at the bottom of the page.

[products ids=”4937, 6043, 6895, 8314, 8582 “]

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Worker dies at Cenovus site in Alberta

Cenovus Energy reported a workplace death at its Christina Lake oilsands site in northeastern Alberta on Wednesday.

According to the Calgary-based company, an employee of a company Cenovus contracts was killed on site, about 350 kilometres northeast of Edmonton, in an incident at about 10:20 p.m. Tuesday night involving a hauling truck and a drilling rig.

In a tweet sent out on Wednesday morning, the company said it is “deeply saddened to report a worker fatality has occurred at our Christina Lake oil sands site in Alberta,” and extends its “deepest sympathies to the worker’s family, friends and co-workers.”

The worker’s name has not yet been released.

Cenovus reports it has, “notified the appropriate authorities and is conducting a full investigation into the cause of the incident.”

The Christina Lake site opened in 2000. Bitumen there is deeply buried and pumped to the surface via steam-assisted gravity drainage.

The site has been undergoing expansion since 2017, as the company adds 50,000 barrels per day to its operations.


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Safety Notice – Stop Use MSA Gravity® Welder Harness January 29, 2018

Dear MSA Fall Protection Customer,

This Safety Notice is issued to inform you that MSA received a field report from an end user
regarding select MSA Gravity Welder Harnesses and that, as a result of MSA’s findings related to
this report, you must take the actions outlined in this Safety Notice.
Upon investigation of the field report, MSA determined that the leg strap and chest strap used in
select MSA Gravity Welder Harnesses are incompatible. Although the harness can be donned, in
the event of a fall, the shoulder straps may extend and affect the protection offered by the harness.

MSA is advising all MSA Gravity Welder Harness customers to immediately stop
use of affected MSA Gravity Welder Harnesses produced from July 2015 through
and including January 2018. The harnesses are to be removed from service,
marked “UNUSABLE” and destroyed.

Identifying and Addressing Affected MSA Gravity Welder Harnesses
Affected MSA Gravity Welder Harnesses are those marked with one of the following part numbers
and a manufacturing date from July 2015 through and including January 2018.
 10151154
 10158954
 10158956
 10158957
To confirm whether or not your harness is affected, check the label on the harness for part number
and manufacture date that meet the criteria above. See Figure 1 for the location of the part number
and manufacture date on an MSA Gravity Welder Harness label.
If the part number has been made illegible through use, refer to Figure 2 to determine whether or
not your harness is affected.
If the part number matches the list above, but the manufacturing date has been made illegible
through use, consider your harness to be affected.
If your harness is affected, remove it from service, mark it “UNUSABLE” and destroy it.

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Driving with Diabetes: Safety Precautions

People with diabetes are free to drive unless diabetes complications impair their ability to drive safely.

Complications that negatively affect drivers with diabetes include symptoms of low or high blood sugar, vision problems, and nerve damage in the hands, legs, or feet.

Risk Factors

More restrictions are typically given to drivers who manage diabetes with insulin even though in some studies insulin use is not correlated with a higher driving risk.

Other research shows that the one factor most often linked to driving collisions is a recent history of severe hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) related to any type of diabetes.

Diabetes Driving Precautions

In light of what is known about the risks of driving with diabetes, these eight precautions from the American Diabetes Association are offered to help those with any diabetes type navigate the roads safely.

  1. Before getting behind the wheel, check your blood glucose level. Do not drive if your blood sugar is too low since your ability to focus and make good decisions will be impaired.
  2. Check your blood sugar level at regular intervals on long drives. Your health care team can help you determine how often you need to monitor.
  3. Have your glucose meter and a store of snacks with you when driving; snacks should include a quick-acting sugar source.
  4. Pull over at any sign of hypoglycemia and check your blood sugar level. Signs include blurry vision, rapid heart rate, sudden nervousness, shakiness, as well as fatigue, headache, confusion, dizziness, hunger, pale skin, sweating, or chills.
  5. If your blood glucose is low, consume a fast-acting sugar snack such as hard candy, regular soda, juice, or glucose tablets. After waiting 15 minutes, check your blood sugar and treat again if necessary. When your blood sugar reaches the target range, eat a more substantial snack containing protein. Continue driving only after the target range is reached.
  6. Should you experience hypoglycemia unawareness, stop driving and get in touch with your health care team. Hypoglycemia unawareness is experiencing low blood sugar without warning. It is unsafe to drive until awareness is regained. Glycemic awareness training with your diabetes care team may help.
  7. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, is less of a driving risk but extreme hyperglycemia can cause safety problems. If you experience hyperglycemia often, talk to your doctor to determine the point when high sugar levels might begin to impair your driving safety.
  8. Have yearly eye exams to detect any diabetes associated vision problems that may compromise safe driving.
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Severe Weather

Severe weather can happen anytime, in any part of the country. Severe weather can include hazardous conditions produced by thunderstorms, including damaging winds, tornadoes, large hail, flooding and flash flooding, and winter storms associated with freezing rain, sleet, snow and strong winds.

Know your Risk

Understand the type of hazardous weather that affects you and your family where you live:

  • Tornadoes
  • Floods
  • Thunderstorms & Lightning
  • Tsunamis

Take Action

Develop an emergency plan based on your local weather hazards and practice your plan.

  • Make a family emergency plan
  • Be informed about emergency alerts
  • Learn more about Prepareathon

Tips and Resources for Online Sharing

  • Share your weather preparedness plan with friends and family
  • Share severe weather preparedness tips on social media using the hashtag: #SevereWeatherPrep
  • Severe Weather Preparedness Social Media Toolkit
  • Flood Safety Social Media Toolkit


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Power Outages

This page provides basic safety tips and how to what to do before, during and after a power outage.

Before a Power Outage

  • Build or restock your emergency preparedness kit, including a flashlight, batteries, cash, and first aid supplies.
  • Make sure you have alternative charging methods for your phone or any device that requires power. For more information visit: Get Tech Ready
  • Charge cell phones and any battery powered devices.
  • Know where the manual release lever of your electric garage door opener is located and how to operate it.
  • Purchase ice or freeze water-filled plastic containers to help keep food cold during a temporary power outage.
  • Keep your car’s gas tank full-gas stations rely on electricity to power their pumps. If you use your car to re-charge devices, do NOT keep the car running in a garage, partially enclosed space, or close to a home, this can lead to carbon monoxide poisoning.
  • Learn about the emergency plans that have been established in your area by visiting your state’s or local website so you can locate the closest cooling and warming shelters.
  • If you rely on anything that is battery-operated or power dependent like a medical device determine a back-up plan. For more planning information tips visit: Seniors and Individuals with Disabilities and Others with Access and Functional Needs

During a Power Outage: Safety Tips

  • Only use flashlights for emergency lighting, candles can cause fires.
  • Keep refrigerator and freezer doors closed. Most food requiring refrigeration can be kept safely in a closed refrigerator for several hours. An unopened refrigerator will keep food cold for about 4 hours. A full freezer will keep the temperature for about 48 hours. For more information about food safety visit our food page.
  • Take steps to remain cool if it is hot outside. In intense heat when the power may be off for a long time, consider going to a movie theater, shopping mall or “cooling shelter” that may be open in your community. If you remain at home, move to the lowest level of your home, since cool air falls. Wear lightweight, light-colored clothing. Drink plenty of water, even if you do not feel thirsty.
  • Put on layers of warm clothing if it is cold outside. Never burn charcoal for heating or cooking indoors. Never use your oven as a source of heat. If the power may be out for a prolonged period, plan to go to another location (the home of a relative or friend, or a public facility) that has heat to keep warm.
  • Turn off or disconnect appliances and other equipment in case of a momentary power “surge” that can damage computers and other devices. Consider adding surge protectors.
  • If you are considering purchasing a generator for your home, consult an electrician or engineer before purchasing and installing.
  • Only use generators away from your home and NEVER run a generator inside a home or garage, or connect it to your home’s electrical system.

After a Power Outage

  • Throw away any food that has been exposed to temperatures 40° F (4° C) for 2 hours or more or that has an unusual odor, color or texture. When in doubt, throw it out!
  • If food in the freezer is colder than 40° F and has ice crystals on it, you can refreeze it.
  • Contact your doctor if you’re concerned about medications having spoiled.
  • Restock your emergency kit with fresh batteries, canned foods and other supplies
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This page will help you gather the information and resources you may need in case of a pandemic such as the flu.

Before a Pandemic

  • Store a two week supply of water and food.
  • Periodically check your regular prescription drugs to ensure a continuous supply in your home.
  • Have any nonprescription drugs and other health supplies on hand, including pain relievers, stomach remedies, cough and cold medicines, fluids with electrolytes, and vitamins.
  • Get copies and maintain electronic versions of health records from doctors, hospitals, pharmacies and other sources and store them, for personal reference. Get help accessing electronic help records.
  • Talk with family members and loved ones about how they would be cared for if they got sick, or what will be needed to care for them in your home.

During a Pandemic

Limit the Spread of Germs and Prevent Infection

  • Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
  • When you are sick, keep your distance from others to protect them from getting sick too.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. It may prevent those around you from getting sick.
  • Washing your hands often will help protect you from germs.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth.
  • Practice other good health habits. Get plenty of sleep, be physically active, manage your stress, drink plenty of fluids, and eat nutritious food.
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Chemical Emergencies

Chemical agents are poisonous vapors, aerosols, liquids and solids that have toxic effects on people, animals or plants. While potentially lethal, chemical agents are difficult to deliver in lethal concentrations because they dissipate rapidly outdoors and are difficult to produce.

Before a Chemical Emergency

A chemical attack could come without warning. Signs of a chemical release include people having difficulty breathing, eye irritation, loss of coordination, nausea, or burning in the nose, throat and lungs. The presence of many dead insects or birds may indicate a chemical agent release.

What you should do to prepare for a chemical threat:

  • Build an Emergency Supply Kit and include:
    • Duct tape
    • Scissors
    • Plastic to cover doors, windows and vents
  • Make a Family Emergency Plan

During a Chemical Emergency

What you should do in a chemical attack:

  • Quickly try to define the impacted area or where the chemical is coming from, if possible.
  • Take immediate action to get away.
  • If the chemical is inside a building where you are, get out of the building without passing through the contaminated area, if possible.
  • If you can’t get out of the building or find clean air without passing through the affected area, move as far away as possible and shelter-in-place.

If you are instructed to remain in your home or office building, you should:

  • Close doors and windows and turn off all ventilation, including furnaces, air conditioners, vents, and fans.
  • Seek shelter in an internal room with your disaster supplies kit.
  • Seal the room with duct tape and plastic sheeting.
  • Listen to the radio or television for instructions from authorities.

If you are caught in or near a contaminated area outdoors:

  • Quickly decide what is the fastest way to find clean air:
    • Move away immediately, in a direction upwind of the source.
    • Find the closest building to shelter-in-place.

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After a Chemical Emergency

Do not leave the safety of a shelter to go outdoors to help others until authorities announce it is safe to do so.

A person affected by a chemical agent requires immediate medical attention from a professional. If medical help is not immediately available, decontaminate yourself and assist in decontaminating others.

Decontamination guidelines are as follows:

  • Use extreme caution when helping others who have been exposed to chemical agents.
  • Remove all clothing and other items in contact with the body.
    • Cut off clothing normally removed over the head to avoid contact with the eyes, nose and mouth.
    • Put contaminated clothing and items into a plastic bag and seal it.
    • Remove eyeglasses or contact lenses. Put glasses in a pan of household bleach to decontaminate them and then rinse and dry.
  • Wash hands with soap and water.
  • Flush eyes with water.
  • Gently wash face and hair with soap and water before thoroughly rinsing with water.
  • Proceed to a medical facility for screening and professional treatment.
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This page explains what actions to take when you receive a hurricane watch or warning alert from the National Weather Service for your local area. It also provides tips on what to do before, during, and after a hurricane.

Hurricane Basics


Hurricanes are massive storm systems that form over the water and move toward land. Threats from hurricanes include high winds, heavy rainfall, storm surge, coastal and inland flooding, rip currents, and tornadoes. These large storms are called typhoons in the North Pacific Ocean and cyclones in other parts of the world.


Each year, many parts of the United States experience heavy rains, strong winds, floods, and coastal storm surges from tropical storms and hurricanes. Affected areas include all Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastal areas and areas over 100 miles inland, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Hawaii, parts of the Southwest, the Pacific Coast, and the U.S. territories in the Pacific. A significant per cent of fatalities occur outside of landfall counties with causes due to inland flooding.


The Atlantic hurricane season runs from June 1 to November 30, with the peak occurring between mid-August and late October. The Eastern Pacific hurricane season begins May 15 and ends November 30.

Basic Preparedness Tips

  • Know where to go. If you are ordered to evacuate, know the local hurricane evacuation route(s) to take and have a plan for where you can stay. Contact your local emergency management agency for more information.
  • Put together a go-bag: disaster supply kit, including a flashlight, batteries, cash, first aid supplies, medications, and copies of your critical information if you need to evacuate
  • If you are not in an area that is advised to evacuate and you decide to stay in your home, plan for adequate supplies in case you lose power and water for several days and you are not able to leave due to flooding or blocked roads.
  • Make a family emergency communication plan.
  • Many communities have text or email alerting systems for emergency notifications. To find out what alerts are available in your area, search the Internet with your town, city, or county name and the word “alerts.”

Preparing Your Home

  • Hurricane winds can cause trees and branches to fall, so before hurricane season trim or remove damaged trees and limbs to keep you and your property safe.
  • Secure loose rain gutters and downspouts and clear any clogged areas or debris to prevent water damage to your property.
  • Reduce property damage by retrofitting to secure and reinforce the roof, windows and doors, including the garage doors.
  • Purchase a portable generator or install a generator for use during power outages. Remember to keep generators and other alternate power/heat sources outside, at least 20 feet away from windows and doors and protected from moisture; and NEVER try to power the house wiring by plugging a generator into a wall outlet.
  • Consider building a FEMA safe room or ICC 500 storm shelter designed for protection from high-winds and in locations above flooding levels.

Hurricane Watch

Hurricane watch = conditions possible within the next 48 hrs.

Steps to take:

  • Review your evacuation route(s) & listen to local officials.
  • Review the items in your disaster supply kit; and add items to meet the household needs for children, parents, individuals with disabilities or other access and functional needs or pets.

Hurricane Warning

Hurricane warning = conditions are expected within 36 hrs.

Steps to take:

  • Follow evacuation orders from local officials, if given.
  • Check-in with family and friends by texting or using social media.
  • Follow the hurricane timeline preparedness checklist, depending on when the storm is anticipated to hit and the impact that is projected for your location.

What to do when a hurricane is 6 hours from arriving

  • If you’re not in an area that is recommended for evacuation, plan to stay at home or where you are and let friends and family know where you are.
  • Close storm shutters, and stay away from windows. Flying glass from broken windows could injure you.
  • Turn your refrigerator or freezer to the coldest setting and open only when necessary. If you lose power, food will last longer. Keep a thermometer in the refrigerator to be able to check the food temperature when the power is restored.
  • Turn on your TV/radio, or check your city/county website every 30 minutes in order to get the latest weather updates and emergency instructions.

What to do when a hurricane is 6-18 hours from arriving

  • Turn on your TV/radio, or check your city/county website every 30 minutes in order to get the latest weather updates and emergency instructions.
  • Charge your cell phone now so you will have a full battery in case you lose power.

What to do when a hurricane is 18-36 hours from arriving

  • Bookmark your city or county website for quick access to storm updates and emergency instructions.
  • Bring loose, lightweight objects inside that could become projectiles in high winds (e.g., patio furniture, garbage cans); anchor objects that would be unsafe to bring inside (e.g., propane tanks); and trim or remove trees close enough to fall on the building.
  • Cover all of your home’s windows. Permanent storm shutters offer the best protection for windows. A second option is to board up windows with 5/8” exterior grade or marine plywood, cut to fit and ready to install.

What to do when a hurricane is 36 hours from arriving

  • Turn on your TV or radio in order to get the latest weather updates and emergency instructions.
  • Build or restock your emergency preparedness kit. Include food and water sufficient for at least three days, medications, a flashlight, batteries, cash, and first aid supplies.
  • Plan how to communicate with family members if you lose power. For example, you can call, text, email or use social media. Remember that during disasters, sending text messages is usually reliable and faster than making phone calls because phone lines are often overloaded.
  • Review your evacuation plan with your family. You may have to leave quickly so plan ahead.
  • Keep your car in good working condition, and keep the gas tank full; stock your vehicle with emergency supplies and a change of clothes.

After a Hurricane

  • Listen to local officials for updates and instructions.
  • Check-in with family and friends by texting or using social media.
  • Return home only when authorities indicate it is safe.
  • Watch out for debris and downed power lines.
  • Avoid walking or driving through flood waters. Just 6 inches of moving water can knock you down, and one foot of fast-moving water can sweep your vehicle away.
  • Avoid flood water as it may be electrically charged from underground or downed power lines and may hide dangerous debris or places where the ground is washed away.
  • Photograph the damage to your property in order to assist in filing an insurance claim.
  • Do what you can to prevent further damage to your property, (e.g., putting a tarp on a damaged roof), as insurance may not cover additional damage that occurs after the storm.

When there is no hurricane: Make a hurricane plan

  • Know your hurricane risk. Talk to your local emergency management agency.
  • Make an emergency plan.
    • Sign up for alerts and warnings
    • Make a Family Communication plan
    • Plan shelter options
    • Know your evacuation route
  • Build or restock your basic disaster supplies kit, including food and water, a flashlight, batteries, chargers, cash, and first aid supplies.
  • Consider buying flood insurance.
  • Familiarize yourself with local emergency plans. Know where to go and how to get there should you need to get to higher ground or to evacuate.
  • Stay tuned to local wireless emergency alerts, TV, or radio for weather updates, emergency instructions, or evacuation orders.
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Explosive devices can be highly portable, using vehicles and humans as a means of transport. They are easily detonated from remote locations or by suicide bombers. There are steps you can take to prepare for the unexpected.

Before an Explosion

The following are things you can do to protect yourself, your family and your property in the event of an explosion.

  • Build an Emergency Supply Kit
  • Make a Family Emergency Plan
  • Learn what to do in case of bomb threats or receiving suspicious packages and letters
  • Ensure your employers have up-to-date information about any medical needs you may have and how to contact designated beneficiaries or emergency contacts.

Bomb Threats

If you receive a telephoned bomb threat:

  • Get as much information from the caller as possible. Try to ask the following questions:
    • When is the bomb going to explode?
    • Where is it right now?
    • What does it look like?
    • What kind of bomb is it?
    • What will cause it to explode?
    • Did you place the bomb?
  • Keep the caller on the line and record everything that is said.
  • Notify the police and building management immediately.

Suspicious Packages and Letters

Some typical characteristics postal inspectors have detected over the years, which should trigger suspicion, include parcels that:

  • Are unexpected or from someone unfamiliar to you.
  • Have no return address, one that doesn’t match the postmark, or can’t be verified as legitimate.
  • Are marked with restrictive endorsements such as “Personal,” “Confidential,” or “Do not X-ray.”
  • Have inappropriate or unusual labeling such as threatening language
  • Have protruding wires or aluminum foil, strange odors or stains.
  • Have excessive postage or packaging material, such as masking tape and string.
  • Are of unusual weight given their size or are lopsided or oddly shaped.
  • Are not addressed to a specific person.

Take these additional steps against possible biological and chemical agents:

  • Never sniff or smell suspicious mail.
  • Place suspicious envelopes or packages in a plastic bag or some other type of container to prevent leakage of contents.
  • Leave the room and close the door or section off the area to prevent others from entering.
  • Wash your hands with soap and water to prevent spreading any powder to your face.
  • If you are at work, report the incident to your building security official or an available supervisor, who should notify police and other authorities without delay.
  • List all people who were in the room or area when this suspicious letter or package was recognized. Give a copy of this list to both the local public health authorities and law enforcement officials for follow-up investigations and advice.
  • If you are at home, report the incident to local police.

During an Explosion

  • Get under a sturdy table or desk if things are falling around you. When they stop falling, leave quickly, watching for obviously weakened floors and stairways.
  • Do not use elevators.
  • Stay low if there is smoke. Do not stop to retrieve personal possessions or make phone calls.
  • Check for fire and other hazards.
  • Once you are out, do not stand in front of windows, glass doors or other potentially hazardous areas.
  • If you are trapped in debris, use a flashlight, whistle or tap on pipes to signal your location to rescuers.
  • Shout only as a last resort to avoid inhaling dangerous dust.
  • Cover your nose and mouth with anything you have on hand.

After an Explosion

  • There may be significant numbers of casualties or damage to buildings and infrastructure.
  • Heavy law enforcement involvement at local, state and federal levels.
  • Health and mental health resources in the affected communities can be strained to their limits, maybe even overwhelmed.
  • Extensive media coverage, strong public fear and international implications and consequences.
  • Workplaces and schools may be closed, and there may be restrictions on domestic and international travel.
  • You and your family or household may have to evacuate an area, avoiding roads blocked for your safety.
  • Clean-up may take many months.
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Cybersecurity involves preventing, detecting, and responding to cyber incidents that can have wide ranging effects on the individual, organizations, the community and at the national level.

Before a Cyber Incident

You can increase your chances of avoiding cyber risks by setting up the proper controls. The following are things you can do to protect yourself, your family, and your property before a cyber incident occurs.

  • Only connect to the Internet over secure, password- protected networks.
  • Do not click on links or pop-ups, open attachments, or respond to emails from strangers.
  • Always enter a URL by hand instead of following links if you are unsure of the sender.
  • Do not respond to online requests for Personally Identifiable Information (PII); most organizations – banks, universities, companies, etc. – do not ask for your personal information over the Internet.
  • Limit who you are sharing information with by reviewing the privacy settings on your social media accounts.
  • Trust your gut; if you think an offer is too good to be true, then it probably is.
  • Password protect all devices that connect to the Internet and user accounts.
  • Do not use the same password twice; choose a password that means something to you and you only; change your passwords on a regular basis.
  • If you see something suspicious, report it to the proper authorities.
  • Familiarize yourself with the types of threats and protective measures you can take by:
    • Sign up for the United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team mailing list.
    • Sign up for the Department of Homeland Security’s Stop.Think.Connect. Campaign and receive a monthly newsletter with cybersecurity current events and tips.

During a Cyber Incident

Immediate Actions

At Work

  • If you have access to an IT department, contact them immediately. The sooner they can investigate and clean your computer, the less damage to your computer and other computers on the network.
  • If you believe you might have revealed sensitive information about your organization, report it to the appropriate people within the organization, including network administrators. They can be alert for any suspicious or unusual activity.

Immediate Actions if your Personally Identifiable Information (PII) is compromised:

PII is information that can be used to uniquely identify, contact, or locate a single person. PII includes but is not limited to:

  • Full Name
  • Social security number
  • Address
  • Date of birth
  • Place of birth
  • Driver’s License Number
  • Vehicle registration plate number
  • Credit card numbers
  • Physical appearance
  • Gender or race

If you believe your PII is compromised:

  • Immediately change all passwords; financial passwords first. If you used the same password for multiple resources, make sure to change it for each account, and do not use that password in the future.
  • Contact companies, including banks, where you have accounts as well as credit reporting companies.
  • Close any accounts that may have been compromised. Watch for any unexplainable or unauthorized charges to your accounts.

After a Cyber Incident

  • File a report with the local police so there is an official record of the incident.
  • Report identity theft to the Federal Trade Commission.
  • Contact additional agencies depending on what information was stolen. Examples include contacting the Social Security Administration if you social security number was compromised, or the Department of Motor Vehicles if your driver’s license or car registration has been stolen.
  • Report online crime or fraud to your local United States Secret Service (USSS) Electronic Crimes Task Force or the Internet Crime Complaint Center.
  • For further information on preventing and identifying threats, visit US-CERT’s Alerts and Tips page.