Posted on Leave a comment

Complete an Inventory of Workplace Hazards and Risks then writing the JHA and JSA for safety

JOB SAFETY ANALYSIS (JSA) Managing higher risk activities requires a more formal and documented risk management process. This process is generically referred to as Job Safety Analysis (JSA).

Controlling the LMRA,    LMRA testing. LMRA testing is where a supervisor, manager, owner or any other interested party safely interrupts routine work activity and asks the worker or workers some simple questions. The questions are to determine the quality of the worker(s) understanding of three things: what the workers are doing, ü what are the hazards in what the workers are doing and how are they managing the identified hazards?  You must be kept in mind that JSA is not a workplace inspection or an audit procedure. Workplace inspection is a systematic examination of workplace conditions and practices to determine their conformity with company procedures and compliance with prescribed health and safety regulations. An audit process is a systematic examination of the safety management system to determine if work activities and related results comply with planned prevention policies and established programs. As well, an audit evaluates whether the program is effective in achieving the goals and objectives set out in the company policy

And never forget the JHA

A job safety analysis involves five steps:

  1. Selecting the job to be analyzed.
  2. Breaking the job down into a sequence of tasks.
  3. Identifying potential hazards.
  4. Determining preventive measures to control these hazards.
  5. Communicating the information to others.

And when writing these document don’t forget EVERYONE must understand the guide words you are applying in your writing like;

This includes collecting information on worksite:

  • Injury/Illness/Property damage history up to 10 years (loss runs, injury database, OSHA logs, property damage reports, chemical releases, etc.)
  • Near miss incidents
  • Process/task hazards
  • For example: Job Safety Analysis (JSA), Job Hazard Analysis (JHA), “What If” Analysis (WI), Standard Operating Procedure (SOP), Failure Mode Effects Analysis (FMEA), Process Hazard Analysis (PHA), etc.
  • Equipment hazards
  • Non-routine tasks
  • Facility siting considerations
  • Contractor/visitor operations
  • Highly hazardous chemical process data (safety data sheets, etc.)
  • Applicable codes, regulations, standards
  • Documented risk assessments
  • Worker complaints/concerns
  • Manufacturer instructions, manuals, data
  • Occupational hygiene survey results
  • Ergonomic workplace assessment results
  • Workplace audits and inspections

Some resources available to complete this step:

  • Internal records & documentation
  • External records & documentation
  • Worker interviews
  • Contractor Interviews
  • Websites – OSHA, DOT, MSHA, EPA, FDA, NRC, etc.
  • Insurance carrier
  • Medical Personnel
  • Product information
  • Equipment manufacturers
  • Vendors/suppliers
  • Benchmarking
  • Professional associations/organizations/societies
  • Trade organizations

Set scope and limits of the assessment.

Establish analysis parameters.

This includes defining:

  • Manageable process, system, task, material or equipment to be selected and its boundaries
  • Operating phases, tasks and time within operations
  • Design, construction, standard operation, start-up, maintenance, abnormal conditions/situations, decommissioning
  • Interfaces with other systems or processes
  • Scope of analysis in terms of who or what is exposed and needs to be protected from harm or damage such as:
  • Workers, contractors, public, property, equipment, process, environment

Some resources available to complete this step:

  • Process descriptions, logs & flow diagrams
  • Systems analysis information
  • Engineering resources
  • Operations resource personnel
  • Maintenance resource personnel
  • Process engineers/experts
  • Job descriptions
  • Product information

Risk reduction team would include:

  • A multi-disciplinary risk assessment approach
  • Team members (stakeholders) would include operations personnel, maintenance personnel, occupational safety and health professionals, process and engineering personnel, consultants, supervision, and others as required.
  • Knowledge of:
  • Process and operational hazard information
  • Risk assessment reference standards and resources
  • Risk assessment tools or methodologies used for assessment
  • Risk matrices used to evaluate and assess risk
  • Risk reduction techniques – hierarchy of control decision making
  • Effectiveness of hazard/risk control measures
  • Impact controls have on severity and likelihood
  • Deployment of risk scoring system

The risk assessment process includes:

  • Identification of task/hazard pairs and/or process-related hazards
  • Identification of current controls
  • Assessment of initial risk – testing/verifying current controls
  • Determination of initial risk (i.e., score)
  • If risk is not acceptable:
  • Reduce risk using hazard control hierarchy – identify new controls
  • Consider failure modes of safeguards
  • Determination of (scoring of) residual risk
  • Determination if residual risk is acceptable
  • Re-evaluation of tasks and hazards
  • Reduce risk using hazard control hierarchy – identify new controls
  • Proceed with risk assessment process until you verify residual risk is acceptable

Making a risk determination generally requires as much stakeholder agreement as possible.  No single person should make the final determination on risk level.  If a final risk determination cannot be established, management should be brought into the decision-making process with support from impartial outsiders to assist with moving the process forward.

Risk reduction team must:

  • Document risk assessment results*
  • Recommend risk control inspection, maintenance and measurement system
  • Conduct report-out of risk assessment findings and recommendations to the management who charted the team

*Documentation of the results should include:

  • Names and job titles/qualifications of persons who completed the risk assessment
  • Risk assessment methods used
  • Risk deriving from hazards
  • Control measures taken to attain acceptable risk levels (i.e., avoidance, elimination, substitution, administrative, and other control measures)
  • Additional relevant information about use, effectiveness of controls, elimination, reduction techniques.

Establish analysis parameters.

The effectiveness of the risk avoidance, elimination and reduction, and control actions taken should be determined.  Follow-up activity should be established to determine that:

  • The hazard/risk problem has been resolved, only partially resolved or not resolved
  • The actions taken did or did not create new hazards
  • An acceptable level of risk has been achieved.

If risk level is not acceptable, or new hazards are introduced, steps shall be taken to re-evaluate the risk and other risk reduction measures shall be proposed and taken. Alert management if acceptable risk has not been achieved.

Sustain and continuously improve the risk reduction process.

This may include:

  • Communicating and training the workforce on the risk assessment process
  • Driving the risk assessment process as part of safety metrics
  • Integrating the Management of Change (MOC) process
  • Integrating site’s Root Cause Incident Analysis (Investigation) Process
  • Risk mitigation action planning
  • Incorporating risk assessment into other safety processes
  • Integrating the Prevention through Design process into the risk assessment process
  • Periodically auditing the risk assessment process
  • Incorporating risk assessment into all leadership communication and decision-making

CLARIFY that the JSA is neither a time and motion study in disguise nor an attempt to uncover individual unsafe acts.

ENSURE the employee understands that the JSA is an evaluation of the job, not the individual.

RESPECT the employee’s experience and use it as an important input in making improvements.

OBSERVE jobs during normal working hours and situations. For example, if a job is routinely carried out at night, perform JSA at night. Similarly, only regular tools and equipment should be used. The only difference from normal operations should be the fact that the job performance is being observed.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.