Before working on a task or job, it is always best to find out the safest and most practical way of completing it. By being aware of potential hazards or bumps in doing the job, it will not only prevent any major issue/injury from occurring but will also improve work performance and safety.
Writing or developing JSA is not a complex, long drawn out process in life, and the key to developing a great JSA is showing staff how to do it properly the first time. A JSA describes job tasks in step-by-step fashion, identifies associated hazards at each step, and outlines proper hazard controls that minimize the risk of injury or illness to the individual(s) performing that task.
Writing a Job Safety Analysis, establishing work rules, instructing workers to follow the work rules, and supervisor enforcement of work rules can help reduce injuries.A Job Safety Analysis:
- identifies hazards associated with each step of any job or task that has the potential to cause serious injury
- determines how to control the hazards
- produces a written tool that can be used to train other staff
- meets Provincial or State Legislation training requirements by developing procedures and work rules that are specific for each job or task Supervisors and staff who actually use the particular piece of equipment should work together to develop the JSA.
Supervisors are responsible for writing the JSA, keeping it on file in the unit, training affected staff, and enforcing work rules. Staff who actually use the equipment should participate in the analysis, because they usually are the most knowledgeable about the hazards and have direct control over them.
Using a blank JSA form, complete the following steps. It is likely that each item written down will change in sequence or be re-defined during the process. In the Task column, write down each step (or task) required to complete the job. Consider preparation and clean-up, and be as thorough as possible. Number the steps sequentially.When should a JSA be created? JSAs should be developed for all equipment and specific operations that present safety hazards and/or concerns. Employees shall be trained on and have a good understanding of the instructions and hazards listed in the JSA prior to engaging in such work practices.
What is an SOP? A standard operating procedure (SOP) is a written document or instruction detailing all steps and activities of a process. The SOP should provide safety, health, and environmental information to perform the process safely.
Before you write or develop take a huge look around!
Before actually beginning the job safety analysis, take a look at the general conditions under which the job is performed and develop a checklist. Below are some sample questions you might ask. Are there materials on the floor that could trip a worker? Is lighting adequate? Are there any live electrical hazards at the jobsite? Are there any chemical, physical, biological, or radiation .hazards associated with the job or likely to develop? Are tools including hand tools, machines, and equipment In need of repair? Is there excessive noise in the work area, hindering worker communication or causing hearing loss? Are job procedures known and are they followed or modified? Are emergency exits clearly marked? Are trucks or motorized vehicles properly equipped with brakes, overhead guards, backup signals, horns, steering gear, and identification, as necessary? Are all employees operating vehicles and equipment properly trained and authorized? Are employees wearing proper personal protective equipment for the jobs they are performing? Have any employees complained of headaches, breathing problems, dizziness, or strong odors? Is ventilation adequate, especially in confined or enclosed spaces? Have tests been made for oxygen deficiency and toxic fumes in confined spaces before entry? Are work stations and tools designed to prevent back and wrist injuries? Are employees trained in the event of a fire, explosion, or toxic gas release?
The 5 Basic Steps When Conducting a JSA:
- Select the job to be analyzed:Gather the people involved in the activity and with the use of the JSAworksheet, break the job down into a sequence of steps by filling in the task step, one by one.
- Identify the potential hazards: Next to each of the tasks using the JSA worksheet, fill in the potential problems/injuries that can occur when undergoing the task or for those involved in it.
- Document the control measures: Write down the measures of each identified hazard that will minimize or prevent the risk to those involved.
- Identify who is responsible: Write down the name of who is responsible for implementing the measures.
- Monitor and Review: Ensure that the task is being supervised in order to make sure that the process of each task is being followed. When the process has been completed, review back to the worksheet and write down whether it was effective or not. If failed, measure the risk level and list down a proposed procedure that can improve or successfully prevent the risk.
For example: 1. fuel powered leaf blower 2. In the Hazard column, write down the hazards associated with each task. Consider all types of potential hazards: PHYSICAL pinch points, moving parts, blades, heavy lifting, etc. CHEMICAL lubricants, fuels, paints, solvents, cleaners, gases, etc. ENVIRONMENTAL temperature extremes, dangerous terrain, insects/ animal bites/stings, etc. They should be numbered in such a way that the hazard is clearly related to the task. Many tasks undertaken are done routinely and have probably been done the same way for years – sometimes safely, sometimes not. Before starting a task, it is essential to think of what is the safest and best way to do it. These JSA worksheets help in assessing the risks of doing the job.
For example: 1a. lifting/moving leaf blower and fuel can 1b. spilling fuel mixture 1c. fuel mixture contact with skin 3. In the Controls column, write down all the possible controls for each of the hazards identified in each of the tasks. There may be several controls that can be used for each hazard. For example: 1a-1. use proper lifting techniques (per shop training) 1b-1. use a proper fuel container with filling nozzle and spark arrester (located…) 1b-2. fill tank over a drop cloth, place contaminated drop cloths in the flammable rag container 1b-3. fill tank no less than 1/2 inch from the top 1c-1. wear nitrile gloves 4. When you have finished listing the tasks, hazards, and controls, write down any training that is required to operate that equipment. 1. IIPP (Injury and Illness Prevention Program) 2. operation of the leaf blower 3. first aid procedures and location of the first aid kit 4. use of PPE 5. Write down the types of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) that may have to be used to control the hazards. 1. safety glasses 2. nitrile gloves TASK HAZARD C etc.
Just because you wrote the document does mean the process stopped did you consider other things while writing like:
After you have recorded the job steps, next examine each step to determine the hazards that exist or that might occur. Ask yourself these kinds of questions. ! Are there hazards that would require the use of personal protective clothing and equipment that are appropriate for the job? ! Are work positions, machinery, pits or holes, and hazardous operations adequately guarded? ! Are lockout procedures used for machinery deactivation as required? ! Is the worker wearing clothing or jewelry, or have long hair that could get caught in the machinery or otherwise cause a hazard? ! Are there fixed objects that may cause injury, such as sharp edges? ! Is the flow of work organized (e.g., Is the worker required to make movements that are too rapid)? ! Can the worker get caught in or between moving parts? ! Can the worker be injured by reaching over moving machinery parts or materials? ! Is the worker at any time in an off-balance position? ! Is the worker positioned to the machine in a way that is potentially dangerous? ! Is the worker required to make movements that could lead to or cause hand or foot injuries, or strain from lifting the hazards of repetitive motions? ! Can the worker be struck by an object or lean against or strike a machine part of object? ! Can the worker fall from one level to another? ! Can the worker be injured from lifting or pulling objects, or from carrying heavy objects? ! Do environmental hazards (dust, chemicals, radiation, welding rays, heat, or excessive noise) result from the performance of the job?
The JSA forms should be completed and monitored by all those responsible and involved in the tasks in order to review changes such as new potential hazards or new control measures once implementing assigned tasks.
- The JSA provides a written record of the process to be used to proceed on a task. As it is a record that can be used in court, it should be signed off by the parties who have responsibility for the tasks.
- The JSA is only a written record. Management processes must be in place to ensure workers have the skills to complete the job and that there is a required level of supervision to ensure the tasks are completed as documented.
- The JSA should be completed by all employees involved in the activity, not just the principal contractor or supervisor.
WHAT WILL BE THE BENEFITS? IF DONE CORRECTLY AND CONSISTENTLY, THEY:
- Provide individual training in safe work habits.
- Instruct new employee.
- Re-train and upgrades seasoned employees’ safe work habits.
- Help to develop a “safety conscious attitude”.
- Increase safety efficiency, productivity, and attention to detail.
- Improve management-supervisor-employee relations.
- Improve and encourages employee involvement and participation.
A job safety analysis can do much toward reducing accidents and injuries in the workplace, but it is only effective if it is reviewed and updated periodically. Even if no changes have been made in a job, hazards that were missed in an earlier analysis could be detected. If an illness or injury occurs on a specific job, the job safety analysis should be reviewed immediately to determine whether changes are needed in the job procedure. In addition, if A close call@ or A near miss@ has resulted from an employees failure to follow job procedures, this should be discussed with all employees performing the job. Any time a job hazard analysis is revised, training in the new job methods, procedures, or protective measures should be provided to all employees affected by the changes. A job safety analysis also can be used to train effectively new employees on the steps and job hazards